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Eindhoven, Netherlands

Smit J.M.,Catharina Hospital Eindhoven
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

BACKGROUND:: Mallet finger is a common injury. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the different treatment options of mallet injuries and their indications, outcomes, and potential complications. METHODS:: A literature-based study was conducted using the PubMed database comprising world literature from January of 1980 until January of 2010. The following search terms were used: "mallet" and "finger." RESULTS:: There are many variations in the design of splints; there are, however, only a few studies that compare the type of splints with one another. Splinting appears to be effective in uncomplicated and complicated cases. Equal results have been reported for early and delayed splinting therapy. To internally fixate a mallet finger, many different techniques have been reported; however, none of these studies examined their comparisons in a controlled setting. In chronic mallet injuries, a tenodermodesis followed by splinting or a tenotomy of the central slip is usually performed. If pain and impairment persist despite previous surgical corrective attempts, an arthrodesis of the distal interphalangeal joint should be performed. CONCLUSIONS:: Uncomplicated cases of mallet injuries are best treated by splinting therapy; cases that do not react to splinting therapy are best treated by surgical interventions. Controversy remains about whether mallet injuries with a larger dislocated bone fragment are best treated by surgery or by external splinting. © 2010 by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Source

Vermeer T.A.,Catharina Hospital Eindhoven
Current oncology reports

The management of rectal cancer has improved considerably in recent decades. Surgery remains the cornerstone of the treatment. However, the role of preoperative imaging has made it possible to optimize the treatment plan in rectal patients. Neoadjuvant treatment may be indicated in efforts to sterilize possible tumor deposits outside the surgical field, or may be used to downsize and downstage the tumor itself. The optimal sequence of treatment modalities can be determined by a multidisciplinary team, who not only use pretreatment imaging, but also review pathologic results after surgery. The pathologist plays a pivotal role in providing feedback about the success of surgery, i.e., the distance between the tumor and the circumferential resection margin, the quality of surgery, and the effect of neoadjuvant treatment. Registry and auditing of all treatment variables can further improve outcomes. In this century, rectal cancer treatment has become a team effort. Source

Van Gijn W.,Leiden University | Marijnen C.A.M.,Leiden University | Nagtegaal I.D.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Kranenbarg E.M.K.,Leiden University | And 6 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology

Background: The TME trial investigated the value of preoperative short-term radiotherapy in combination with total mesorectal excision (TME). Long-term results are reported after a median follow-up of 12 years. Methods: Between Jan 12, 1996, and Dec 31, 1999, 1861 patients with resectable rectal cancer without evidence of distant disease were randomly assigned to TME preceded by 5 × 5 Gy radiotherapy or TME alone (ratio 1:1). Randomisation was based on permuted blocks of six with stratification according to centre and expected type of surgery. The primary endpoint was local recurrence, analysed for all eligible patients who underwent a macroscopically complete local resection. Findings: 10-year cumulative incidence of local recurrence was 5% in the group assigned to radiotherapy and surgery and 11% in the surgery-alone group (p<0·0001). The effect of radiotherapy became stronger as the distance from the anal verge increased. However, when patients with a positive circumferential resection margin were excluded, the relation between distance from the anal verge and the effect of radiotherapy disappeared. Patients assigned to radiotherapy had a lower overall recurrence and when operated with a negative circumferential resection margin, cancer-specific survival was higher. Overall survival did not differ between groups. For patients with TNM stage III cancer with a negative circumferential resection margin, 10-year survival was 50% in the preoperative radiotherapy group versus 40% in the surgery-alone group (p=0·032). Interpretation: For all eligible patients, preoperative short-term radiotherapy reduced 10-year local recurrence by more than 50% relative to surgery alone without an overall survival benefit. For patients with a negative resection margin, the effect of radiotherapy was irrespective of the distance from the anal verge and led to an improved cancer-specific survival, which was nullified by an increase in other causes of death, resulting in an equal overall survival. Nevertheless, preoperative short-term radiotherapy significantly improved 10-year survival in patients with a negative circumferential margin and TNM stage III. Future staging techniques should offer possibilities to select patient groups for which the balance between benefits and side-effects will result in sufficiently large gains. Funding: The Dutch Cancer Society, the Dutch National Health Council, and the Swedish Cancer Society. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Willemze R.A.,Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research | Luyer M.D.,Catharina Hospital Eindhoven | Buurman W.A.,Maastricht University | De Jonge W.J.,Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Studies in neuroscience and immunology have clarified much of the anatomical and cellular basis for bidirectional interactions between the nervous and immune systems. As with other organs, intestinal immune responses and the development of immunity seems to be modulated by neural reflexes. Sympathetic immune modulation and reflexes are well described, and in the past decade the parasympathetic efferent vagus nerve has been added to this immune-regulation network. This system, designated 'the inflammatory reflex', comprises an afferent arm that senses inflammation and an efferent arm that inhibits innate immune responses. Intervention in this system as an innovative principle is currently being tested in pioneering trials of vagus nerve stimulation using implantable devices to treat IBD. Patients benefit from this treatment, but some of the working mechanisms remain to be established, for instance, treatment is effective despite the vagus nerve not always directly innervating the inflamed tissue. In this Review, we will focus on the direct neuronal regulatory mechanisms of immunity in the intestine, taking into account current advances regarding the innervation of the spleen and lymphoid organs, with a focus on the potential for treatment in IBD and other gastrointestinal pathologies. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer has the potential to induce side-effects, including upper-limb lymphedema. Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a technique that enables discrimination of the lymphatic drainage of the breast from that of the upper limb in the axillary lymph node (LN) basin. If lymphedema is caused by removing these lymphatics and nodes in the upper limb, the possibility of identifying these lymphatics would enable surgeons to preserve them. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical relevance of selective axillary LN and lymphatic preservation by means of ARM. To minimize the risk of overlooking tumor-positive ARM nodes and the associated risk of undertreatment, we will only include patients with a tumor-positive sentinel lymph node (SLN). Patients who are candidates for ALND because of a proven positive axillary LN at clinical examination can be included in a registration study. The study will enroll 280 patients diagnosed with SLN biopsy-proven metastasis of invasive breast cancer with an indication for a completion ALND. Patients will be randomized to undergo standard ALND or an ALND in which the ARM nodes and their corresponding lymphatics will be left in situ. Primary outcome is the presence of axillary surgery-related lymphedema at 6, 12, and 24 months post-operatively, measured by the water-displacement method. Secondary outcome measures include pain, paresthesia, numbness, and loss of shoulder mobility, quality of life, and axillary recurrence risk. The benefit of ALND in patients with a positive SLN is a subject of debate. For many patients, an ALND will remain the treatment of choice. This multicenter randomized trial will provide evidence of whether or not axillary LN preservation by means of ARM decreases the side-effects of an ALND. Enrolment of patients will start in April 2013 in five breast-cancer centers in the Netherlands, and is expected to conclude by April 2016. TC3698. Source

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