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Puerto Real, Spain

Carballeira C.,Catedra UNESCO UNITWIN WICOP | De Orte M.R.,Catedra UNESCO UNITWIN WICOP | Viana I.G.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Carballeira A.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2012

Environmental monitoring plans (EMP) that include chemical analysis of water, a battery of bioassays and the study of local hydrodynamic conditions are required for land-based marine aquaculture. In this study, the following standardized toxicity tests were performed to assess the toxicity of effluents from eight land-base marine fish farms (LBMFFs) located on the northwest coast of Spain: bacterial bioluminescence (with Vibrio fischeri at 15 and 30min), microalgal growth (with Phaeodactyllum tricornutum and Isochrysis galbana) and sea urchin larval development (with Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula). These bioassays were evaluated for inclusion in routine fish farm monitoring. Effective concentrations (EC 5, EC 10, EC 20, EC 50) for each bioassay were calculated from dose-response curves, obtained by fitting the bioassay results to the best parametric model. Moreover, a graphical method of integrating the results from the battery of bioassays and classifying the toxicity was proposed, and the potential ecotoxic effects probe (PEEP) index was calculated. The bacterial bioluminiscence test at 30min, growth of I. galbana and larval development of A. lixula were found to be the most sensitive and useful tests. Graphical integration of these test results enabled definition of the ecotoxicological profiles of the different farms. The PEEP index, considering EC 20, efficiently reflected the toxic loading potential of LBMFF effluents. In conclusion, a battery of bioassays with species from different low trophic levels is recommended as a rapid and cost-effective methodology for assessing LBMFF discharges. The graphical integration method and the PEEP index are proposed for consideration in EMPs for such farms. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Carballeira C.,Catedra UNESCO UNITWIN WICOP | De Orte M.R.,Catedra UNESCO UNITWIN WICOP | Viana I.G.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | DelValls T.A.,Catedra UNESCO UNITWIN WICOP | Carballeira A.,University of Santiago de Compostela
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

In aquaculture, disinfection of facilities, prevention of fish diseases, and stimulation of fish growth are priority goals and the most important sources of toxic substances to the environment, together with excretory products from fish. In the present study, embryos of two species of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula) were exposed to serial dilutions of six antibiotics (amoxicillin (AMOX), ampicillin, flumequine (FLU), oxytetracycline (OTC), streptomycin (ST), and sulfadiazine > SFD]) and two disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and formaldehyde > CH 2O]). Alterations in larval development were studied, and the effective concentrations (ECs) were calculated to evaluate the toxicity of the substances. Both species showed similar sensitivities to all substances tested. Disinfectants (EC 50 = 1.78 and 1.79 mg/l for CH 2O; EC 50 = 10.15 and 11.1 mg/l for NaClO) were found to be more toxic than antibiotics. AMOX, OTC, and ST caused < 20 % of alterations, even at the highest concentrations tested. FLU was the most toxic to P. lividus (EC 50 = 31.0 mg/l) and SFD to A. lixula (EC 50 = 12.7 mg/l). The sea urchin bioassay should be considered within toxicity assessment-monitoring plans because of the sensitivity of larvae to disinfectants. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Carbon capture and storage is increasingly being considered one of the most efficient approaches to mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere associated with anthropogenic emissions. However, the environmental effects of potential CO2 leaks remain largely unknown. The amphipod Ampelisca brevicornis was exposed to environmental sediments collected in different areas of the Gulf of Cádiz and subjected to several pH treatments to study the effects of CO2-induced acidification on sediment toxicity. After 10 days of exposure, the results obtained indicated that high lethal effects were associated with the lowest pH treatments, except for the Ría of Huelva sediment test. The mobility of metals from sediment to the overlying seawater was correlated to a pH decrease. The data obtained revealed that CO2-related acidification would lead to lethal effects on amphipods as well as the mobility of metals, which could increase sediment toxicity. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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