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Cravero V.,CONICET | Martin E.,CONICET | Crippa I.,CONICET | Anido F.L.,Catedra de Genetica | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products

Fourteen accessions of Cynara cardunculus were compared with the aim to evaluate the fresh biomass production and its partition, aiming at its potential use for industrial purposes. At anthesis stage, when plants have the maximum vegetative development, stalks, leaves and capitula were weighed separately. The percentage of dry matter per gram of fresh biomass was also calculated. The first capitulum components of each plant: bracts, flowers and remnant receptacle were also weighed separately. The total fresh biomass ranged between 1188 and 3235. g/plant, with variable values within each botanical variety, whereas the partition of the aboveground biomass was strongly affected by botanical variety. In both cardoons varieties, the percentage of dry matter ranged between 30 and 35% for all components of aboveground biomass, whereas in globe artichoke values ranged between 20% for capitula and 40% for leaves. Regarding capitula components, receptacle weight was of greatest importance in globe artichoke and cultivated cardoon. In wild cardoon flowers weight was more important than the other components. Results suggest that Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus and C. cardundulus var. cardunculus, might be considered as double purpose crops if after the capitula (in globe artichoke) or leaves (in cardoon) harvest, the fresh matter remaining is artificially dried and cut. On the other hand, Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris, might be incorporated into the culture system as an industry or energy crop due the low inputs management that it requires, its adaptability to the local conditions and its aboveground biomass production. © 2012. Source

Martin E.,CONICET | Cravero V.,CONICET | Portis E.,University of Turin | Scaglione D.,University of Turin | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Breeding

An F1 mapping population was bred by crossing an accession of wild cardoon with a single Argentinian globe artichoke plant of the variety Estrella del Sur FCA with a view to generating new Cynara cardunculus linkage maps. Genotyping was conducting using a set of 553 SRAP, SSR, AFLP and SNP markers. The 1,465.5 cM map based on the segregation of alleles present in the wild cardoon parent comprised 214 loci distributed across 16 linkage groups (LGs), while the 910.1 cM globe artichoke-based map featured 141 loci falling into 12 LGs covering the total length. Three of the morphological traits (head spininess, leaf spininess and head color) for which the parents contrasted were inherited monogenically, and the genes conditioning them were mapped. A set of 48 co-dominant loci was used to align the LGs with those derived from a reference SSR-based consensus map of the species. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Cravero V.P.,Catedra de Mejoramiento Vegetal Y Produccion de Semillas | Lopez Anido F.S.,Catedra de Mejoramiento Vegetal Y Produccion de Semillas | Esposito M.A.,Catedra de Mejoramiento Vegetal Y Produccion de Semillas | Cointry E.L.,Catedra de Mejoramiento Vegetal Y Produccion de Semillas
BAG - Journal of Basic and Applied Genetics

Conventional breeding has been successful but, has limitations inherent to sexual reproduction essentially refers to the time required to increase the genetic gain. For this reason, try to use non-conventional methods to increase the efficiency of traditional methods. The aim of our work was to obtain national varieties using non-conventional tools to complement traditional breeding techniques in vegetable crops such as artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) and annual species, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) in order to achieve technical and economic independence for the country. As a result of this project were obtained 4 clones of artichoke, 5 asparagus clonal hybrid, 2 zucchini hybrids. Currently the program has been incorporated the use of molecular markers and in vitro culture technology to shortening t the generational cycle. Source

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