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The immune system (IS) cells are capable of recognizing a wide variety of microorganisms, through receptors that are expressed and distributed throughout the cell architecture. The interaction between the pathogen-associated molecular patterns or damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or DAMPs) and pattern recognition receptors (PRR), present in host cells, is a critical event that involves intracellular signaling processes that end up in the expression of both, proinflammatory and antiviral mediators. Accordingly, the proper functioning of the different mechanisms of signal transduction from the cell membrane to the cytoplasm will depend on the integrity of these receptors (PRR); and therefore, the IS response triggered against pathogens including viral agents. Hence, in this review we discuss the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) in viral infections, using as evidence the studies in humans and mice known to date. © 2014, Investigacion Clinica (Venezuela). All rights reserved. Source

Duran A.,Catedra de Bioquimica General | Duran A.,University of Zulia | Ochoa E.,University of Zulia | Alcocer S.,University of Zulia | And 5 more authors.
Investigacion Clinica (Venezuela)

Dengue is characterized by fever, headache, arthralgia and myalgia. The presence of gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (GISS) is considered a sign of alarm in dengue; however, little information exists regarding the occurrence of these events. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of gastrointestinal signs and symptoms in a cohort of patients with dengue. A total of 1484 medical records of patients with confirmed dengue were reviewed and classified as: dengue without warning signs (DNWS) (n = 700), dengue with warning signs (DWWS) (n = 700) and severe dengue (SD) (n = 84). Of the studied records, 65.71% of patients with DNWS, 92.59% with DWWS and 100% of patients with SD had GISS. In patients with DNWS, nausea / vomiting were the most common symptoms in 319/700 cases (45.57%), followed by abdominal pain in 142/700 (20.29%) and diarrhea in 125/700 (17.86%). There were no cases with melena, hepatomegaly or hematemesis. While in DWWS nausea/vomiting were present in 529/700 (75.57%), abdominal pain in 439/700 (62.71%) and diarrhea in 198/700 (28.28%),(p <0.0001). Melena, hematemesis and hepatomegaly ranged from 0.57% to 1.86% of cases. In SD, nausea/vomiting were registered in 100% of the cases, abdominal pain in 82/84 (97.62%), diarrhea in 65/84 (77.38%), melena in 32/84 (38.10%), hepatomegaly in 28/84 (33.33%) and hematemesis in 26/84 (30.95%). It was evident the high frequency of GISS in cases of DWWS and SD, in contrast to DNWS, in which the frequency of GISS was significantly lower. This suggests a relationship of GISS with the severity of dengue, and their presence should be considered by the decision-making health team for appropriate patient management. Source

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