Christchurch, New Zealand
Christchurch, New Zealand

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Robertson K.,Catalyst Ltd. | Symes W.,Catalyst Ltd. | Garnham M.,Catalyst Ltd.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units are included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2-e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covers 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3 yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions are assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and is used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n = 3) was 11.05 t of CO2-e/ha and 0.81 kg of CO2-e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n = 2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2-e/ha and 1.03 kg of CO2-e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2-e/ha and 0.90 kg of CO2-e/kg of FPCM. The results have relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms cover 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable, but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produce milk with a significantly higher carbon footprint per area of land farmed when compared with outdoor farming systems, although the 2 systems are not significantly different when results are expressed per kilogram of FPCM, at 0.81 kg CO2-e and 1.03 kg CO2-e per kg of FPCM respectively. Both systems have footprints less than other reported dairy goat carbon footprints, and on par with those for New Zealand dairy cows. The methodology used for determining enteric methane is important for an accurate and meaningful assessment. The choice of manure management system and supplementary feed can substantially affect the carbon footprint. © 2015 American Dairy Science Association.


Robertson K.,Catalyst Ltd | Garnham M.,Catalyst Ltd | Symes W.,Catalyst Ltd
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2014

Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the life cycle carbon footprint of the New Zealand kiwifruit packaging and transport supply chain to retailers in two major markets (Japan and Germany). Results of this study have been used to identify areas of the New Zealand kiwifruit packaging and transport supply chain that contribute significantly to the carbon footprint and to identify options for reduction.Methods: This study is based on the ISO standards for life cycle assessment (namely, ISO 14040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006). The PAS 2050 also provided further methodological guidance. Primary packaging data were sourced from Zespri’s suppliers. End-of-life data were sourced from the market and waste statistics of the relevant countries. Gabi 4.4 was used for upstream material information and modelling.Results and discussion: The carbon footprint of the packaging and transport of kiwifruit ranged from 0.33 to 0.67 kg CO2e per kilogram of fruit delivered to a store depending on pack type and market. Shipping accounted for the majority of these emissions (58–82 %), and Zespri is actively working with shipping companies to reduce this. There are also opportunities to reduce the carbon footprint through reducing the amount of fruit repacked in the market, using trains for long-distance transport and increasing packaging recycling rates.Conclusions: There is a range of options for reducing the carbon footprint of the New Zealand kiwifruit packaging and transport supply chain. These will tend to be incremental (i.e. a number of small gains) and would involve working closely with partners in the supply chain. Options include increased efficiency in shipping, use of trains for land transport, reductions in the addition of structural packaging in the market, managing the product mix to minimize those supply chains with a higher carbon footprint, identifying alternative material for components of the packaging, replacing the use of polystyrene clamshells with alternative materials or plastic bags and maximizing recycling rates along all stages of the supply chain. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Trademark
Catalyst Inc. | Date: 2011-10-12

Downloadable audio files, video files, data files, and electronic publications in the nature of books, newsletters, articles, and reports, and DVDs and CDs all featuring educational and training information devoted to promoting the interests of women, namely, issues of gender diversity and diversity and inclusion in the workplace.


Trademark
Catalyst Inc. | Date: 2011-10-12

Publications, namely, books, brochures, and newsletters in the field of promoting the interests of women, namely, issues of gender diversity and diversity and inclusion in the workplace.


Trademark
Catalyst Inc. | Date: 2013-03-18

Downloadable audio files, video files, data files, and electronic publications in the nature of books, newsletters, articles, and reports, and DVDs and CDs all featuring educational and training information devoted to promoting the interests of women, namely, issues of gender diversity and diversity and inclusion in the workplace.


Trademark
Catalyst Inc. | Date: 2013-03-18

Publications, namely, books, brochures, newsletters, articles and reports in the field of promoting the interests of women, namely, issues of gender diversity and diversity and inclusion in the workplace.


Trademark
Catalyst Inc. | Date: 2012-09-11

Downloadable audio files, video files, data files, and electronic publications in the nature of books, newsletters, articles, and reports, and DVDs and CDs all featuring educational and training information devoted to promoting the interests of women, namely, issues of gender diversity and diversity and inclusion in the workplace.


Trademark
Catalyst Inc. | Date: 2012-10-09

Publications, namely, books, brochures, and newsletters in the field of promoting the interests of women, namely, issues of gender diversity and diversity and inclusion in the workplace.

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