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Arbyn M.,Scientific Institute of Public Health | Arbyn M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Arbyn M.,University of Amsterdam | Castellsague X.,University of Amsterdam | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: The knowledge that persistent human papillomavirus infection is the main cause of cervical cancer has resulted in the development of assays that detect nucleic acids of the virus and prophylactic vaccines. Up-to-date and reliable data are needed to assess impact of existing preventive measures and to define priorities for the future. Materials and methods: Best estimates on cervical cancer incidence and mortality are presented using recently compiled data from cancer and mortality registries for the year 2008. Results: There were an estimated 530 000 cases of cervical cancer and 275 000 deaths from the disease in 2008. It is the third most common female cancer ranking after breast (1.38 million cases) and colorectal cancer (0.57 million cases). The incidence of cervical cancer varies widely among countries with world age-standardised rates ranging from <1 to >50 per 100 000. Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in Eastern, Western and Middle Africa; Central America; South-Central Asia and Melanesia. The highest incidence rate is observed in Guinea, with ~6.5% of women developing cervical cancer before the age of 75 years. India is the country with the highest disease frequency with 134 000 cases and 73 000 deaths. Cervical cancer, more than the other major cancers, affects women <45 years. Conclusions: In spite of effective screening methods, cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem. New methodologies of cervical cancer prevention should be made available and accessible for women of all countries through well-organised programmes. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source


Whitaker H.C.,CRUK Cambridge Research Institute | Kote-Jarai Z.,The Institute of Cancer Research | Ross-Adams H.,CRUK Cambridge Research Institute | Warren A.Y.,Addenbrookes Hospital | And 32 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) regulates apoptosis and using genome-wide association studies the rs10993994 single nucleotide polymorphism in the MSMB promoter has been linked to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. The promoter location of the risk allele, and its ability to reduce promoter activity, suggested that the rs10993994 risk allele could result in lowered MSMB in benign tissue leading to increased prostate cancer risk. Methodology/Principal Findings: MSMB expression in benign and malignant prostate tissue was examined using immunohistochemistry and compared with the rs10993994 genotype. Urinary MSMB concentrations were determined by ELISA and correlated with urinary PSA, the presence or absence of cancer, rs10993994 genotype and age of onset. MSMB levels in prostate tissue and urine were greatly reduced with tumourigenesis. Urinary MSMB was better than urinary PSA at differentiating men with prostate cancer at all Gleason grades. The high risk allele was associated with heterogeneity of MSMB staining and loss of MSMB in both tissue and urine in benign prostate. Conclusions: These data show that some high risk alleles discovered using genome-wide association studies produce phenotypic effects with potential clinical utility. We provide the first link between a low penetrance polymorphism for prostate cancer and a potential test in human tissue and bodily fluids. There is potential to develop tissue and urinary MSMB for a biomarker of prostate cancer risk, diagnosis and disease monitoring. Copyright: © 2010 Whitaker et al. Source


Killick E.,Institute of Cancer Research | Morgan R.,University of Surrey | Launchbury F.,University of Surrey | Bancroft E.,Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust | And 22 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2013

Controversy surrounds the use of PSA as a biomarker for prostate cancer detection, leaving an unmet need for a novel biomarker in this setting; urinary EN2 may identify individuals with clinically relevant prostate cancer. Male BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at increased risk of clinically significant prostate cancer and may benefit from screening. Urine samples from 413BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and controls were evaluated. Subjects underwent annual PSA screening with diagnostic biopsy triggered by PSA > 3.0 ng/ml; 21 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Urinary EN2 levels were measured by ELISA and had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 89.3% for cancer detection. There was no statistically significant difference in EN2 levels according to genetic status or Gleason score. Urinary EN2 may be useful as a non-invasive early biomarker for prostate cancer detection in genetically high-risk individuals. Source


Prades J.,Catalonian Cancer Plan | Ferro T.,Catalonian Institute of Oncology | Gil F.,Catalonian Institute of Oncology | Borras J.M.,University of Barcelona
Breast | Year: 2014

This study sought to assess the impact of health care professional (HCP) communication on breast cancer patients across the acute care process as perceived by patients. Methodological approach was based on eight focus groups conducted with a sample of patients (. n=37) drawn from 15 Spanish Regions; thematic analysis was undertaken using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) framework of HCP communication as the theoretical basis. Relevant results of this study were the identification of four main communication components: (1) reassurance in coping with uncertainty after symptom detection and prompt access until confirmed diagnosis; (2) fostering involvement before delivering treatments, by anticipating information on practical and emotional illness-related issues; (3) guidance on the different therapeutic options, through use of clinical scenarios; and, (4) eliciting the feeling of emotional exhaustion after ending treatments and addressing the management of potential treatment-related effects. These communication-related components highlighted the need for a comprehensive approach in this area of cancer care. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Pollan M.,Carlos III Institute of Health | Pollan M.,CIBER ISCIII | Lope V.,Carlos III Institute of Health | Lope V.,CIBER ISCIII | And 24 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2012

High mammographic density (MD) is a phenotype risk marker for breast cancer. Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with MD, with the breast being a fat storage site. We investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution and adult weight gain on MD, taking age, BMI and other confounders into account. Because visceral adiposity and BMI are associated with breast cancer only after menopause, differences in pre- and post-menopausal women were also explored. We recruited 3,584 women aged 45-68 years within the Spanish breast cancer screening network. Demographic, reproductive, family and personal history data were collected by purposetrained staff, who measured current weight, height, waist and hip circumferences under the same protocol and with the same tools. MD was assessed in the left craniocaudal view using Boyd's Semiquantitative Scale. Association between waist-to-hip ratio, adult weight gain (difference between current weight and self-reported weight at 18 years) and MD was quantified by ordinal logistic regression, with random center-specific intercepts. Models were adjusted for age, BMI, breast size, time since menopause, parity, family history of breast cancer and hormonal replacement therapy use. Natural splines were used to describe the shape of the relationship between these two variables and MD. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely associated with MD, and the effect was more pronounced in pre-menopausal (OR = 0.53 per 0.1 units; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.66) than in post-menopausal women (OR = 0.73; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.82) (P of heterogeneity = 0.010). In contrast, adult weight gain displayed a positive association with MD, which was similar in both groups (OR = 1.17 per 6 kg; 95 % CI = 1.11-1.23). Women who had gained more than 24 kg displayed higher MD (OR = 2.05; 95 % CI = 1.53-2.73). MD was also evaluated using Wolfe's and Tabár's classifications, with similar results being obtained. Once BMI, fat distribution and other confounders were considered, our results showed a clear dose-response gradient between the number of kg gained during adulthood and the proportion of dense tissue in the breast. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

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