Barcelona, Spain

The Catalan Institute of Nanotechnology is a public-funded research institute focusing in nanotechnology established in 2003. It will be housed in a new building located on campus at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, Catalonia. Wikipedia.

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Guix M.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Mayorga-Martinez C.C.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Merkoci A.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Merkoci A.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Nano- and micromotors are nano- and microscale devices, respectively, designed to perform selected mechanical movements in response to specific stimuli. They are built from a few nano- and microscale components, each of which can be biologically or chemically functionalized, and operate using some type of energy input. Over the past decade, researchers have shown increased interest in nano- and micromotors. The development and application of these devices are among the most pressing challenges in current nanoscience and nanotechnology. The videos contained in the Supporting Information clearly demonstrate that nanomotors are no longer the subject of science fiction. Also included in the Supporting Information are tables that summarize the main advances in composition and operation for each class of nano- and micromotor.

Carne A.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Carbonell C.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Imaz I.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Maspoch D.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2011

Metal-organic materials are found to be a fascinating novel class of functional nanomaterials. The limitless combinations between inorganic and organic building blocks enable researchers to synthesize 0- and 1-D metal-organic discrete nanostructures with varied compositions, morphologies and sizes, fabricate 2-D metal-organic thin films and membranes, and even structure them on surfaces at the nanometre length scale. In this tutorial review, the synthetic methodologies for preparing these miniaturized materials as well as their potential properties and future applications are discussed. This review wants to offer a panoramic view of this embryonic class of nanoscale materials that will be of interest to a cross-section of researchers working in chemistry, physics, medicine, nanotechnology, materials chemistry, etc., in the next years. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Domingo N.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Bellido E.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Ruiz-Molina D.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

This critical review represents a concise revision of the different experimental approaches so far followed for the structuration of molecular nanomagnets on surfaces, since the first reports on the field more than ten years ago. Afterwards, a presentation of the different experimental approaches followed for their integration in sensors is described. Such work involves mainly two families of sensors and devices, microSQUIDs sensors and three-terminal devices for single-molecule detection. Finally the last section is devoted to a detailed revision of the different experimental techniques that can be used for the magnetic characterization of these systems on surfaces, ranging from magnetic circular dichroism to magnetic force microscopy. The use of these techniques to characterize other nanostructured magnetic materials, such as nanoparticles, is also revised. The aim is to give a broad overview of the last advances achieved with these techniques and their potential and evolution over the next years.

Alemany R.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Clinical and Translational Oncology | Year: 2013

Soon after the discovery that viruses cause human disease, started the idea of using viruses to treat cancer. After the initial indiscriminate use, crude preparations of each novel virus in the early twentieth century, a second wave of virotherapy blossomed in the 60s with purified and selected viruses. Responses were rare and short-lived. Immune rejection of the oncolytic viruses was identified as the major problem and virotherapy was abandoned. During the past two decades virotherapy has re-emerged with engineered viruses, with a trend towards using them as tumor-debulking immunostimulatory agents combined with radio or chemotherapy. Currently, oncolytic Reovirus, Herpes, and Vaccinia virus are in late phase clinical trials. Despite the renewed hope, efficacy will require improving systemic tumor targeting, overcoming stroma barriers for virus spread, and selectively stimulating immune responses against tumor antigens but not against the virus. Virotherapy history, viruses, considerations for clinical trials, and hurdles are briefly overviewed. © 2012 Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO).

Bhaskar U.K.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2015

Flexoelectricity allows a dielectric material to polarize in response to a mechanical bending moment and, conversely, to bend in response to an electric field. Compared with piezoelectricity, flexoelectricity is a weak effect of little practical significance in bulk materials. However, the roles can be reversed at the nanoscale. Here, we demonstrate that flexoelectricity is a viable route to lead-free microelectromechanical and nanoelectromechanical systems. Specifically, we have fabricated a silicon-compatible thin-film cantilever actuator with a single flexoelectrically active layer of strontium titanate with a figure of merit (curvature divided by electric field) of 3.33 MV-1, comparable to that of state-of-the-art piezoelectric bimorph cantilevers. © 2015 Nature Publishing Group

Pruneda J.M.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2012

First-principles calculations of substitutional defects and vacancies are performed for zigzag-edged hybrid C/BN nanosheets and nanotubes which recently have been proposed to exhibit half-metallic properties. The formation energies show that defects form preferentially at the interfaces between graphene and BN domains rather than in the middle of these domains, and that substitutional defects dominate over vacancies. Chemical control can be used to favor localization of defects at C-B interfaces (nitrogen-rich environment) or C-N interfaces (nitrogen-poor environment). Although large defect concentrations have been considered here (106 cm -1), half-metallic properties can subsist when defects are localized at the C-B interface and for negatively charged defects localized at the C-N interface; hence the promising magnetic properties theoretically predicted for these zigzag-edged nanointerfaces might not be destroyed by point defects if these are conveniently engineered during synthesis. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Pruneda J.M.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2010

Half-semimetallicity has been predicted to occur in zigzag-shaped graphene ribbons embedded in BN sheets. Using first-principles density-functional calculations a physical explanation is given, showing that the magnetism of the edge states in graphene strips and polarity effects in BN strips team up to give a spin asymmetric screening that induces an electronic reconstruction and half-semimetallicity at the interface, with a gap of at least a few hundreds of millielectron volts for one spin orientation and a tiny gap of tens of millielectron volts for the other. The dependence with ribbon widths is discussed, revealing that a range of ribbon widths is required to obtain the half-semimetallic state. These results prove that unconventional physical effects similar to those observed at insulating oxide interfaces, can also exist in lower dimensions, opening alternative routes for tuning electronic properties at nanointerfaces. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Menendez J.A.,Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2015

The current global portfolio of oncology drugs is unlikely to produce durable disease remission for millions of cancer patients worldwide. This is due, in part, to the existence of so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs), a particularly aggressive type of malignant cell that is capable of indefinite self-replication, is refractory to conventional treatments, and is skilled at spreading and colonizing distant organs. To date, no drugs from big-league Pharma companies are capable of killing CSCs. Why? Quite simply, a classic drug development approach based on mutated genes and pathological protein products cannot efficiently target the plastic, epigenetic proclivity of cancer tissues to generate CSCs. Recent studies have proposed that certain elite metabolites (oncometabolites) and other common metabolites can significantly influence the establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures of stemness and cancer. Consequently, cellular metabolism and the core epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, can be better viewed as an integrated metaboloepigenetic dimension of CSCs, which we have recently termed cancer metabostemness. By targeting weaknesses in the bridge connecting metabolism and epigenetics, a new generation of metabostemnessspecific drugs can be generated for potent and long-lasting elimination of life-threatening CSCs. Here I evaluate the market potential of re-modeling the oncology drug pipeline by discovering and developing new metabolic approaches able to target the apparently undruggable epigenetic programs that dynamically regulate the plasticity of non-CSC and CSC cellular states. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Catalan Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Kehoe | Date: 2015-08-26

Device for inspecting an array of nanostructures with periodic pattern repetitions, comprising: a focusing optical element arranged for focusing a first paraxial, collimated laser beam with a first waist to a focal point; an aspheric lens arranged for transforming the focused laser beam into a second paraxial, collimated laser beam with a waist smaller than the first waist for illuminating a plurality of the pattern repetitions, and for collecting a diffracted laser light caused by diffraction of the second laser beam in the illuminated pattern repetitions; a redirecting optical element arranged for redirecting at least part of the diffracted laser light from the aspheric lens to a far field sensing device for obtaining a diffraction pattern and comparing the obtained diffraction pattern to a reference diffraction pattern.

Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Date: 2015-08-26

The present invention provides novel coated bacteriophages and formulations comprising the same, which are characterized by comprising lipidic coated bacteriophages useful in different industrial applications, such as, therapeutic and prophylactic agents in the field of human and veterinary industries, control of bacteria population in livestock in general, and as sanitizing and/or sterilization agents in animal and food production and processing industries. The lipid mixture forming the lipidic capsules, vesicles, envelopes or liposome like particles of the present invention comprises a mixture of four different lipidic components, namely, a first, a second, a third and a fourth lipidic component. Each of these different four lipid components may comprise at least one lipid substance selected from a specific closed list of lipid substances.

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