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Petrovic M.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Petrovic M.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry

In the last five years dozens of papers are published on the development, optimization and validation of analytical methodologies for the analysis of pharmaceuticals in aqueous and solid environmental samples, and several hundreds of papers reported on the application of those methods in monitoring studies or studies on the fate and behavior of pharmaceuticals in the environment and during water treatment. In spite of apparent maturity of methods and protocols for the monitoring of pharmaceuticals in the environment, methodological challenges are still numerous. This paper discusses the potential pitfalls in the quantitative multiresidue target analysis of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples, such as preservation of samples, stability of analytes in the sample and in standard solutions, possible losses of analytes due to sorption on the glassware and/or filter materials and matrix effects in MS detection. Recommendations how to avoid or at least minimize the errors and wrong interpretation of data are given. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Marti E.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Balcazar J.L.,Catalan Institute for Water Research
Clinical Microbiology and Infection

A plasmid (pP2G1), which confers multidrug resistance in an environmental Aeromonas species, was completely sequenced using a shotgun approach. Plasmid pP2G1 encoded resistance to aminoglycosides and quinolones [aac(6′)-Ib-cr], β-lactams (blaOXA-1), chloramphenicol (catB3), macrolides [mphA-mrx-mphR], quaternary ammonium compounds (qacEΔ1), quinolones (qnrS2), rifampicin (arr-3) and sulphonamides (sul1). These findings suggest that Aeromonas species may potentially act as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Source

Marti E.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Balcazar J.L.,Catalan Institute for Water Research
Research in Microbiology

In this study, we determined the diversity and composition of benthic bacterial communities collected in river sediments upstream and downstream from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed notable differences between the communities from upstream and downstream sites. In particular, a higher relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes and a lower proportion of Gammaproteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia sequences were detected at the downstream site compared to the upstream site. These findings represent a first approximation of the impact of WWTP discharges on environmental microbial communities. © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Source

Farre M.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Barcelo D.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Barcelo D.,Catalan Institute for Water Research
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry

Governments all over the world are intensifying their efforts to improve food safety, which are coming in response to an increasing number of food-safety problems and rising consumer concerns. In addition, the variety of toxicant residues in food is increasing continuously as a consequence of industrial development, new agricultural practices, environmental pollution and climate change.This article reviews the new analytical approaches [e.g., coupled chromatography techniques, the use of new extraction materials, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography and novel mass spectrometric methods (e.g., ambient ionization techniques for food analysis)]. We pay special emphasis to reviewing recent literature on analysis of emerging contaminants in food. © 2012. Source

Marti E.,Catalan Institute for Water Research | Jofre J.,University of Barcelona | Balcazar J.L.,Catalan Institute for Water Research

Antibiotic resistance represents a global health problem, requiring better understanding of the ecology of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), their selection and their spread in the environment. Antibiotics are constantly released to the environment through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. We investigated, therefore, the effect of these discharges on the prevalence of ARGs and bacterial community composition in biofilm and sediment samples of a receiving river. We used culture-independent approaches such as quantitative PCR to determine the prevalence of eleven ARGs and 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to examine the composition of bacterial communities. Concentration of antibiotics in WWTP influent and effluent were also determined. ARGs such as qnrS, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, erm(B), sul(I), sul(II), tet(O) and tet(W) were detected in all biofilm and sediment samples analyzed. Moreover, we observed a significant increase in the relative abundance of ARGs in biofilm samples collected downstream of the WWTP discharge. We also found significant differences with respect to community structure and composition between upstream and downstream samples. Therefore, our results indicate that WWTP discharges may contribute to the spread of ARGs into the environment and may also impact on the bacterial communities of the receiving river. © 2013 Marti et al. Source

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