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Perello G.,Rovira i Virgili University | Gomez-Catalan J.,University of Barcelona | Castell V.,Catalan Food Safety Agency | Llobet J.M.,University of Barcelona | Domingo J.L.,Rovira i Virgili University
Food Control | Year: 2012

In 2000 and 2006, we determined the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain. In order to establish the temporal trend in the levels of HCB in foodstuffs, as well as in the dietary exposure to that environmental pollutant, the concentrations were again analyzed by HRGC/HRMS in 65 composite food samples widely consumed by the Catalan population. Food samples were randomly purchased in November-December 2008 in local markets, small stores, supermarkets, and large grocery stores from 12 representative cities from Catalonia. The daily intake of HCB associated with this consumption was estimated for four age groups of the population of Catalonia: children, teenagers, adults and seniors, which were in turn divided according to sex. The highest mean HCB levels in food were detected in oils and fats (0.297 ng/g fw), dairy products (0.225 ng/g fw), and fish and seafood (0.170 ng/g fw). In the 2000 and 2006 surveys, total dietary intakes of HCB were 166.2 and 71.6 ng/day, respectively (or 2.4 and 1.0 ng/kg of body weight per day). In the current study, it was 37.7 ng/day (or 0.54 ng/kg of body weight per day), which means considerable decreases with respect to the previous intakes. According to recommendations of international regulatory organisms, the current dietary intake of HCB should not mean any significant health risk (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) for any of the age/gender groups of population here assessed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Perello G.,Rovira i Virgili University | Gomez-Catalan J.,University of Barcelona | Castell V.,Catalan Food Safety Agency | Llobet J.M.,University of Barcelona | Domingo J.L.,Rovira i Virgili University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), as well as those of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12-dioxin like (DL)-PCBs, were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in Catalonia (Spain) in November-December 2008. A total of 65 composite samples, belonging to various food groups were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS. The dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were subsequently estimated for four age groups of the population of Catalonia: children, teenagers, adults, and seniors, which were in turn divided according to sex. The highest dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs corresponded to fish and seafood (28.0%), dairy products (15.4%), and oils and fats (10.6%), while that of PCBs corresponded to fish and seafood (58.6%), and dairy products (8.9%). In contrast, the lowest contributions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs corresponded to vegetables, fruits and pulses. Concerning the sum of PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs, the current total intake expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/kg per day (0.60) showed a notable decreasing trend with respect to those found in previous surveys performed also in Catalonia in 2000 (3.51) and 2006 (1.12. pg/kg per day). The current dietary intake of PCDDs plus DL-PCBs is similar or lower than that recently reported in studies performed in a number of regions and countries. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Perello G.,Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health | Marti-Cid R.,Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health | Castell V.,Catalan Food Safety Agency | Llobet J.M.,GRET CERETOX | Domingo J.L.,Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health
Food Control | Year: 2010

The effects of several cooking processes commonly used by the population of Catalonia (Spain) on the total concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) were assessed in various foodstuffs. The levels in raw and cooked samples were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Cooking processes (fried, grilled, roasted, and boiled) had different effects on the levels of PCDD/PCDFs in fish, while in meats cooking reduced PCDD/PCDF concentrations in veal and pork. In the remaining foodstuffs, the differences were only relevant for fried potatoes. Cooking showed also different effects on the levels of PCBs in fish, while in meats cooking enhanced PCB concentrations. Cooking processes enhanced ΣPCDE levels in most fish and meat samples. These results show that, in general terms, cooking processes are only of limited value as a means of reducing concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs, PCBs and PCDEs in food. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Martorell I.,Rovira i Virgili University | Perello G.,Rovira i Virgili University | Marti-Cid R.,Rovira i Virgili University | Llobet J.M.,University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2011

The main purpose of this study was to establish the temporal trend in the daily dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) by the population of Catalonia, Spain. Concentrations of these elements were determined in samples of a number of food items widely consumed in that country. The dietary intake of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb was then estimated for various age-gender groups of population: children, adolescents, adults, and seniors. In the present study, the dietary intakes of As, inorganic As, Cd, Hg, methylmercury, and Pb were 328.37, 16.22, 19.47, 11.39, 10.25, and 101.47 μg/day, respectively, while in a previous (2006) survey, the dietary intakes of As, inorganic As, Cd, Hg, methylmercury, and Pb were 261.01, 33.17, 9.80, 12.61, 11.35, and 45.13 μg/day, respectively. The estimated intakes of Cd, Hg, and Pb are still notably lower than the respective PTWIs, while that of inorganic As is also lower than its BMDL 01. In summary, the results of this study indicate that, currently, the dietary intakes of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb should not mean additional health risks for the consumers. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010. Source


Perello G.,Rovira i Virgili University | Llobet J.M.,University of Barcelona | Gomez-Catalan J.,University of Barcelona | Castell V.,Catalan Food Safety Agency | And 3 more authors.
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2014

The present study was aimed at estimating the current (2012) dietary intake of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) by the population of Catalonia, Spain. The temporal trends with respect to previous surveys, performed in 2000, 2005, and 2008, were also determined. For that purpose, metal concentrations were analyzed in a number of widely consumed foodstuffs. A speciation study was also conducted by experimentally determining the levels of inorganic As (InAs) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the same food items. Furthermore, the dietary intake of those metals and species was calculated both deterministically and probabilistically by considering two food consumption surveys: ENCAT and ENIDE, representative of the Catalan and Spanish populations, respectively. An important temporal decrease of the dietary intake was noted for most elements, irrespective of the age-gender population group. Considering data for a male adult, the current dietary intake of As, InAs, Cd, Hg, MeHg, and Pb was estimated in 216, 2.6, 8.7, 10, 7.3, and 8.4 μg/day, respectively, being these values lower than the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) or benchmark dose lower confidence limits (BMDLs). Moreover, new calculations by means of ENIDE survey indicated similar results to those previously obtained by ENCAT, with the exception of MeHg, whose intake exceeded the maximum recommended values for some part of the population. Although our data are similar to those frequently found in other European countries, the important intake of MeHg, which is linked to the high consumption of fish and shellfish, deserves further investigation. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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