Castleton, VT, United States
Castleton, VT, United States

Castleton State College is a public liberal arts college located in Castleton in the U.S. state of Vermont. Castleton has an enrollment of 2000 students and offers more than 30 undergraduate programs as well as master’s degrees in education and accounting. The college is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Wikipedia.

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Ryan P.C.,Middlebury College | Kim J.J.,Vermont Geological Survey | Mango H.,Castleton State College | Hattori K.,University of Ottawa | Thompson A.,Middlebury College
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2013

Elevated As levels have been reported by the Vermont Geological Survey in groundwater from public and domestic bedrock wells in northwestern New England (USA). The study area in southwestern Vermont is underlain by pyrite-rich, organic-rich slates that were thrusted over carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks of the continental shelf during the Ordovician Taconian Orogeny, and the distribution of wells with elevated As shows that they were completed in slates. Hydrochemical and bedrock geochemical analysis indicates that elevated As in the aquifer system is controlled by the following: (1) the presence of black slates that are rich in arsenian pyrite (200-2000. ppm As); (2) release of As via the dissolution of As-rich pyrite; (3) geochemically-reducing and slightly alkaline conditions, where high As values occur at Eh. <. 200. mV and pH. >. 7; and (4) physical hydrogeological parameters that foster low Eh and high pH, particularly long groundwater flow paths and low well yields (i.e. high residence time) which provides high rock to water ratios. Where all four factors affect As contents in groundwater, 72% of wells in a zone of distal groundwater flow/low-relief topography exceed 10. μg/L (ppb) and 60% of wells in this zone exceed 25. ppb As. Where flow paths are shorter in slates and groundwater has higher Eh and lower pH (i.e. in regions of higher-relief topography closer to recharge zones), only 3% of wells contain >10. ppb As and none contain >25. ppb.Overall, 28% (50/176) of low-elevation wells (<245meters above sea level [masl]) exceed 10ppb As; only 3% (2/60) of higher-elevation wells (245-600masl) exceed 10ppb As. Over the entire aquifer system, 22% of bedrock wells (52/236) exceed 10ppb and the mean As concentration is 12.4ppb. Strong positive correlations among Fe, SO4 and As in groundwater confirm that dissolution of pyrite is the dominant As source. Positive correlations among SO4, Na and As indicate that, in reducing (Eh<200mV) groundwater, Fe(II) is exchanged for Na on mineral surfaces following pyrite dissolution and As remains in solution; conversely, in oxidizing groundwater (recharge zones), Fe(II) is oxidized to Fe(III) and the subsequent formation of ferrihydrite removes As (V) from solution. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Laine S.,Spitzer Science Center | Appleton P.N.,California Institute of Technology | Gottesman S.T.,University of Florida | Ashby M.L.N.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Garland C.A.,Castleton State College
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2010

We have observed warm molecular hydrogen in two nearby edge-on disk galaxies, NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, using the Spitzer high-resolution infrared spectrograph. The 0-0 S(0) 28.2 /μm and 0-0 S(1) 17.0 /μm pure rotational lines were detected out to 10 kpc from the center of each galaxy on both sides of the major axis, and in NGC 4565 the S(0) line was detected at r = 15 kpc on one side. This location is beyond the transition zone where diffuse neutral atomic hydrogen starts to dominate over cold molecular gas and marks a transition from a disk dominated by high surface-brightness far-infrared (far-IR) emission to that of a more quiescent disk. It also lies beyond a steep drop in the radio continuum emission from cosmic rays (CRs) in the disk. Despite indications that star formation activity decreases with radius, the H2 excitation temperature and the ratio of the H2 line and the far-IR luminosity surface densities, Eσ(LH2)/Eσ(LTIR), change very little as a function of radius, even into the diffuse outer region of the disk of NGC 4565. This suggests that the source of excitation of the H2 operates over a large range of radii and is broadly independent of the strength and relative location of UV emission from young stars. Although excitation in photodissociation regions is the most common explanation for the widespread H2 emission, CR heating or shocks cannot be ruled out. At r = 15 kpc in NGC 4565, outside the main UV- and radio-continuum-dominated disk, we derived a higher than normal H2 to 7.7 /zm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission ratio, but this is likely due to a transition from mainly ionized PAH molecules in the inner disk to mainly neutral PAH molecules in the outer disk. The inferred mass surface densities of warm molecular hydrogen in both edge-on galaxies differ substantially, being 4(-60) M⊙ pc-2 and 3(-50) M⊙ pc-2 at r = 10 kpc for NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, respectively. The higher values represent very unlikely point-source upper limits. The point-source case is not supported by the observed emission distribution in the spectral slits. These mass surface densities cannot support the observed rotation velocities in excess of 200 km s-1. Therefore, warm molecular hydrogen cannot account for dark matter in these disk galaxies, contrary to what was implied by a previous Infrared Space Observatory study of the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 891. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Lee R.E.,Arizona State University | Heinrich K.M.,Kansas State University | Reese-Smith J.Y.,University of Houston | Regan G.R.,Castleton State College | Adamus-Leach H.J.,University of Houston
American Journal of Health Behavior | Year: 2014

Objectives: To compare restaurant marketing by restaurant and neighborhood type. Methods: All restaurants (61=fast food, FF; 72=table service, TS) within an 800-meter radius of 13 public housing developments (HD) and 4 comparison neighborhoods were audited using the Restaurant Assessment Tool©2010. HD neighborhoods were lower income and higher minority than comparison neighborhoods with similar density and street connectivity. Results: Restaurants in HD neighborhoods had fewer healthy entrées than comparison neighborhoods. FF restaurants had cheaper beverages and more children's meals, supersize drinks, free prize with purchase, supersize items, special characters, and more items geared to driving than TS restaurants. Conclusions: Residents of lower socioeconomic neighborhoods may be differentially exposed to unhealthy food options. Copyright (c) PNG Publications. All rights reserved.

Hill J.P.,Idaho State University | Germino M.J.,Idaho State University | Alongi D.A.,Castleton State College
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Understanding how green sink strength is regulated in planta poses a difficult problem because non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels can have integrated, simultaneous feedback effects on photosynthesis, sugar uptake, and respiration that depend on specific NSC moieties. Photosynthetic gametophytes of the fern Ceratopteris richardii provide a simple land plant model to assess how different NSCs imported from the apoplast of intact plants affect green sink strength. Sink strength was quantified as the amount of exogenous sugar that plants grown in low light depleted from their liquid media, and the relative contributions of carbon assimilation by photosynthesis and sugar uptake was estimated from stable isotope analysis of plant dry mass. Gametophytes absorbed fructose and glucose with equal affinity when cultured on either hexose alone, or in the presence of an equimolar blend of both sugars. Plants also depleted sucrose from the surrounding media, although a portion of this disaccharide that was hydrolysed into fructose and glucose by putative cell wall invertase activity remained in the media. The δ13C in plant dry masses harvested from sugar treatments were all close to-18‰, indicating that 25-39% of total plant carbon was from C3 photosynthesis (δ13C=- 29‰) and 61-75% was from uptake of exogenous sugars (δ 13C=-11‰). Carbon-use efficiency (i.e. carbon accumulated/carbon depleted) was significantly improved when plants had a blend of exogenous sugars available compared with plants grown in a single hexose alone. Plants avoided complete down-regulation of photosynthesis even though a large excess of exogenous carbon fluxed through their cells. © 2010 The Author(s).

Ragatz L.,Castleton State College | Russell B.,Penn State Berks
Journal of Social Psychology | Year: 2010

This study investigated the influence of defendant sex, sexual orientation, and participant sex on perceptions of a crime-of-passion. An online sample of 458 individuals read a scenario describing a homicide and provided judgments of verdict, sentence length, legal elements, and sexism. We hypothesized heterosexual female defendants would most likely receive a verdict of manslaughter, be found less guilty, and receive shorter sentences. We were also interested in whether benevolent sexism would contribute to defendant culpability decisions. Lastly, perceptions of legal elements for manslaughter (e.g., great provocation) and murder (e.g., intentionality of actions) were explored. Results demonstrated heterosexual female defendants were less guilty and received the shortest sentences. Also, heterosexual defendants were most likely to meet the manslaughter legal elements. Benevolent sexism contributed significantly to guilt perceptions. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Garland C.A.,Castleton State College | Garland C.A.,American Museum of Natural History | Pisano D.J.,West Virginia University | Low M.-M.M.,American Museum of Natural History | And 4 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1-3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%); (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%); and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Mango H.,Castleton State College | Arehart G.,University of Nevada, Reno | Oreskes N.,University of California at San Diego | Zantop H.,Dartmouth College
Mineralium Deposita | Year: 2014

The Guanajuato epithermal district is one of the largest silver producers in Mexico. Mineralization occurs along three main vein systems trending dominantly northwest-southeast: the central Veta Madre, the La Luz system to the northwest, and the Sierra system to the east. Mineralization consists dominantly of silver sulfides and sulfosalts, base metal sulfides (mostly chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, and pyrite), and electrum. There is a broad zonation of metal distribution, with up to 10 % Cu+Pb+Zn in the deeper mines along the northern and central portions of the Veta Madre. Ore occurs in banded veins and breccias and as stockworks, with gangue composed dominantly of quartz and calcite. Host rocks are Mesozoic sedimentary and intrusive igneous rocks and Tertiary volcanic rocks. Most fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures are between 200 and 300 °C, with salinities below 4 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Fluid temperature and salinity decreased with time, from 290 to 240 °C and from 2.5 to 1.1 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Relatively constant fluid inclusion liquid-to-vapor ratios and a trend of decreasing salinity with decreasing temperature and with increasing time suggest dilution of the hydrothermal solutions. However, evidence of boiling (such as quartz and calcite textures and the presence of adularia) is noted along the Veta Madre, particularly at higher elevations. Fluid inclusion and mineralogical evidence for boiling of metal-bearing solutions is found in gold-rich portions of the eastern Sierra system; this part of the system is interpreted as the least eroded part of the district. Oxygen, carbon, and sulfur isotope analysis of host rocks, ore, and gangue minerals and fluid inclusion contents indicate a hydrothermal fluid, with an initial magmatic component that mixed over time with infiltrating meteoric water and underwent exchange with host rocks. Mineral deposition was a result of decreasing activities of sulfur and oxygen, decreasing temperature, increasing pH, and, in places, boiling. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Carlson L.A.,University of New England at Biddeford | Tighe S.W.,University of Vermont | Kenefick R.W.,U.S. Army | Dragon J.,University of Vermont | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2011

Various types of exercise alter the population of circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and change their transcriptional output. This work examines changes in PBMC populations and transcription in response to resistance exercise training (RET), and identify key transcriptional changes in PBMCs that may play a role in altering peripheral tissues in response to RET. Ten resistance- trained men (20-24 years), performed an acute bout of RET for ∼30 min following a 12 h fast. Venous blood was sampled at rest, immediately following exercise, and at 2 h post-exercise and analyzed for total and differential leukocytes and global gene expression using Affymetrix Genechips. Results showed elevated leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, and lactate values immediately postexercise (P<0.05) over baseline. At 2 h post-exercise, leukocytes, and granulocytes remained elevated (P<0.05), whereas lymphocytes were lower than (P<0.05) baseline values. Initial microarray results showed the greatest transcriptional changes in pathways related to immune response, inflammation, and cellular communication. The change in PBMC population (2 h time point) correlated with a dramatic decrease in the expression of CD160, and XCL1, markers of lymphocyte populations. At the 2 h recovery time point upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9, orosomucoid 1, dishevelled- associated activator of morphogenesis 2, and arginase 1 suggest an induction in muscle damage and repair during this time frame. These results demonstrate that an acute bout of RET disrupts cellular homeostasis, induces a transient redistribution of certain leukocytes, and results in transcriptional changes in PBMCs translating into systemic changes in response to RET. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Mango H.,Castleton State College | Ryan P.,Middlebury College
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

Arsenic-bearing pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater produced in late Cambrian and Ordovician gray and black slates and phyllites in the Taconic region of southwestern Vermont, USA. The aim of this study is to analyze the sulfur isotopic composition of this pyrite and determine if a relationship exists between pyrite δ34S and arsenic content. Pyrite occurs in both sedimentary/diagenetic (bedding-parallel layers and framboids) and low-grade metamorphic (porphyroblast) forms, and contains up to >2000ppm As. The sulfur isotopic composition of arsenic-bearing pyrite ranges from -5.2‰ to 63‰. In the marine environment, the sulfur in sedimentary pyrite becomes increasingly enriched in 34S as the geochemical environment becomes increasingly anoxic. There is a positive correlation between δ34S and arsenic content in the Taconic pyrite, suggesting that uptake of arsenic by pyrite increased as the environment became more reducing. This increased anoxia may have been due to a rise in sea level and/or tectonic activity during the late Cambrian and Ordovician. Low-grade metamorphism appears to have little effect on sulfur isotope composition, but does correlate with lower arsenic content in pyrite. New groundwater wells drilled in this region should therefore avoid gray and black slates and phyllites that contain sedimentary/diagenetic pyrite with heavy δ34S values. •Pyrite is the source of arsenic in groundwater in the Taconic region of Vermont, USA.•As-bearing pyrite δ34S=-5.2 to 63‰ with higher 34S as environment becomes more anoxic.•High sea level, tectonic activity create anoxia, with incorporation of As into pyrite.•New wells should avoid slate/phyllite containing sedimentary pyrite with heavy δ34S. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..

Sperry K.,Castleton State College | Siegel J.T.,Claremont Graduate University
Legal and Criminological Psychology | Year: 2013

Purpose. Victims of rape are often attributed a certain amount of responsibility, which is often translated into reduced victim credibility and fewer convictions in the courtroom. The purpose of the present study was to apply Weiner's attribution model to the literature on rape blame to understand why victim blame impacts credibility and verdict. Weiner's model posits that perceptions of a target's responsibility will lead to less sympathy and therefore reduced willingness to help the target. In line with this model, it was hypothesized that sympathy for a rape victim mediates the relationship between victim responsibility and: (a) willingness to help the victim, (b) credibility, and (c) verdict. Methods. Participants read a 1,000-word transcript of a rape trial and made judgements regarding the victim's responsibility for the rape, sympathy for the victim, willingness to help the victim, perceived witness credibility, and verdict. The victim's responsibility for the rape was manipulated between subjects. Results. The hypotheses were supported: sympathy mediated the relationships between perceived victim responsibility and: (a) willingness to help the victim, (b) credibility, and (c) verdict. Using EQS, two models are presented (one hypothesized and one modified) that further delineate these relationships. Conclusions. The present study applied a well-established theory in social psychology to further understand the relationship between victim blame, willingness to help, victim credibility, and verdict. In line with Weiner's attribution model, sympathy for the victim played a key role in those relationships. Implications of these findings for legal professionals are discussed. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

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