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Castleton, VT, United States

Castleton State College is a public liberal arts college located in Castleton in the U.S. state of Vermont. Castleton has an enrollment of 2000 students and offers more than 30 undergraduate programs as well as master’s degrees in education and accounting. The college is accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges. Wikipedia.


Lee R.E.,Arizona State University | Heinrich K.M.,Kansas State University | Reese-Smith J.Y.,University of Houston | Regan G.R.,Castleton State College | Adamus-Leach H.J.,University of Houston
American Journal of Health Behavior | Year: 2014

Objectives: To compare restaurant marketing by restaurant and neighborhood type. Methods: All restaurants (61=fast food, FF; 72=table service, TS) within an 800-meter radius of 13 public housing developments (HD) and 4 comparison neighborhoods were audited using the Restaurant Assessment Tool©2010. HD neighborhoods were lower income and higher minority than comparison neighborhoods with similar density and street connectivity. Results: Restaurants in HD neighborhoods had fewer healthy entrées than comparison neighborhoods. FF restaurants had cheaper beverages and more children's meals, supersize drinks, free prize with purchase, supersize items, special characters, and more items geared to driving than TS restaurants. Conclusions: Residents of lower socioeconomic neighborhoods may be differentially exposed to unhealthy food options. Copyright (c) PNG Publications. All rights reserved. Source


Laine S.,Spitzer Science Center | Appleton P.N.,California Institute of Technology | Gottesman S.T.,University of Florida | Ashby M.L.N.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Garland C.A.,Castleton State College
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2010

We have observed warm molecular hydrogen in two nearby edge-on disk galaxies, NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, using the Spitzer high-resolution infrared spectrograph. The 0-0 S(0) 28.2 /μm and 0-0 S(1) 17.0 /μm pure rotational lines were detected out to 10 kpc from the center of each galaxy on both sides of the major axis, and in NGC 4565 the S(0) line was detected at r = 15 kpc on one side. This location is beyond the transition zone where diffuse neutral atomic hydrogen starts to dominate over cold molecular gas and marks a transition from a disk dominated by high surface-brightness far-infrared (far-IR) emission to that of a more quiescent disk. It also lies beyond a steep drop in the radio continuum emission from cosmic rays (CRs) in the disk. Despite indications that star formation activity decreases with radius, the H2 excitation temperature and the ratio of the H2 line and the far-IR luminosity surface densities, Eσ(LH2)/Eσ(LTIR), change very little as a function of radius, even into the diffuse outer region of the disk of NGC 4565. This suggests that the source of excitation of the H2 operates over a large range of radii and is broadly independent of the strength and relative location of UV emission from young stars. Although excitation in photodissociation regions is the most common explanation for the widespread H2 emission, CR heating or shocks cannot be ruled out. At r = 15 kpc in NGC 4565, outside the main UV- and radio-continuum-dominated disk, we derived a higher than normal H2 to 7.7 /zm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission ratio, but this is likely due to a transition from mainly ionized PAH molecules in the inner disk to mainly neutral PAH molecules in the outer disk. The inferred mass surface densities of warm molecular hydrogen in both edge-on galaxies differ substantially, being 4(-60) M⊙ pc-2 and 3(-50) M⊙ pc-2 at r = 10 kpc for NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, respectively. The higher values represent very unlikely point-source upper limits. The point-source case is not supported by the observed emission distribution in the spectral slits. These mass surface densities cannot support the observed rotation velocities in excess of 200 km s-1. Therefore, warm molecular hydrogen cannot account for dark matter in these disk galaxies, contrary to what was implied by a previous Infrared Space Observatory study of the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC 891. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source


Hill J.P.,Idaho State University | Germino M.J.,Idaho State University | Alongi D.A.,Castleton State College
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

Understanding how green sink strength is regulated in planta poses a difficult problem because non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels can have integrated, simultaneous feedback effects on photosynthesis, sugar uptake, and respiration that depend on specific NSC moieties. Photosynthetic gametophytes of the fern Ceratopteris richardii provide a simple land plant model to assess how different NSCs imported from the apoplast of intact plants affect green sink strength. Sink strength was quantified as the amount of exogenous sugar that plants grown in low light depleted from their liquid media, and the relative contributions of carbon assimilation by photosynthesis and sugar uptake was estimated from stable isotope analysis of plant dry mass. Gametophytes absorbed fructose and glucose with equal affinity when cultured on either hexose alone, or in the presence of an equimolar blend of both sugars. Plants also depleted sucrose from the surrounding media, although a portion of this disaccharide that was hydrolysed into fructose and glucose by putative cell wall invertase activity remained in the media. The δ13C in plant dry masses harvested from sugar treatments were all close to-18‰, indicating that 25-39% of total plant carbon was from C3 photosynthesis (δ13C=- 29‰) and 61-75% was from uptake of exogenous sugars (δ 13C=-11‰). Carbon-use efficiency (i.e. carbon accumulated/carbon depleted) was significantly improved when plants had a blend of exogenous sugars available compared with plants grown in a single hexose alone. Plants avoided complete down-regulation of photosynthesis even though a large excess of exogenous carbon fluxed through their cells. © 2010 The Author(s). Source


Ragatz L.,Castleton State College
Journal of Social Psychology | Year: 2010

This study investigated the influence of defendant sex, sexual orientation, and participant sex on perceptions of a crime-of-passion. An online sample of 458 individuals read a scenario describing a homicide and provided judgments of verdict, sentence length, legal elements, and sexism. We hypothesized heterosexual female defendants would most likely receive a verdict of manslaughter, be found less guilty, and receive shorter sentences. We were also interested in whether benevolent sexism would contribute to defendant culpability decisions. Lastly, perceptions of legal elements for manslaughter (e.g., great provocation) and murder (e.g., intentionality of actions) were explored. Results demonstrated heterosexual female defendants were less guilty and received the shortest sentences. Also, heterosexual defendants were most likely to meet the manslaughter legal elements. Benevolent sexism contributed significantly to guilt perceptions. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Mango H.,Castleton State College | Arehart G.,University of Nevada, Reno | Oreskes N.,University of California at San Diego | Zantop H.,Dartmouth College
Mineralium Deposita | Year: 2014

The Guanajuato epithermal district is one of the largest silver producers in Mexico. Mineralization occurs along three main vein systems trending dominantly northwest-southeast: the central Veta Madre, the La Luz system to the northwest, and the Sierra system to the east. Mineralization consists dominantly of silver sulfides and sulfosalts, base metal sulfides (mostly chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, and pyrite), and electrum. There is a broad zonation of metal distribution, with up to 10 % Cu+Pb+Zn in the deeper mines along the northern and central portions of the Veta Madre. Ore occurs in banded veins and breccias and as stockworks, with gangue composed dominantly of quartz and calcite. Host rocks are Mesozoic sedimentary and intrusive igneous rocks and Tertiary volcanic rocks. Most fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures are between 200 and 300 °C, with salinities below 4 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Fluid temperature and salinity decreased with time, from 290 to 240 °C and from 2.5 to 1.1 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Relatively constant fluid inclusion liquid-to-vapor ratios and a trend of decreasing salinity with decreasing temperature and with increasing time suggest dilution of the hydrothermal solutions. However, evidence of boiling (such as quartz and calcite textures and the presence of adularia) is noted along the Veta Madre, particularly at higher elevations. Fluid inclusion and mineralogical evidence for boiling of metal-bearing solutions is found in gold-rich portions of the eastern Sierra system; this part of the system is interpreted as the least eroded part of the district. Oxygen, carbon, and sulfur isotope analysis of host rocks, ore, and gangue minerals and fluid inclusion contents indicate a hydrothermal fluid, with an initial magmatic component that mixed over time with infiltrating meteoric water and underwent exchange with host rocks. Mineral deposition was a result of decreasing activities of sulfur and oxygen, decreasing temperature, increasing pH, and, in places, boiling. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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