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Tsang M.M.Y.,Castle Peak Hospital | Man D.W.K.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2013

Employment provides schizophrenic patients with a positive identity and hope. Cognitive impairments have been suggested to slow down the progress in work rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of VR as a cognitive intervention for enhancing vocational outcomes. 95 inpatients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to a virtual reality-based vocational training group (VRG), a therapist-administered group (TAG) and a conventional group (CG). Twenty-five of them in each group had completed the study. Their performances were evaluated, before and after interventions, by Brief Neuropsychological Cognitive Examination, Digit Vigilance Test, Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Vocational Cognitive Rating Scale. Patients in the VRG were found to perform better than patients in the TAG and CG in cognitive functioning, as shown by the WCST-percentage of error (F (2, 72) = 7.146, p. <. 0.001) and the WCST-percentage of conceptual level response (F (2, 72) = 8.722, p. <. 0.001). The post-hoc test revealed that the VRG showed a better performance than both the TAG (p = 0.03) and the CG (p. <. 0.001) in the WCST-percentage of error. The VRG also showed a better performance than patients in both the TAG (p = 0.01) and the CG (p. <. 0.001) in the WCST-percentage of conceptual level response. The VRG also showed a better self-efficacy score than CG. Both VRG and TAG showed a better work performance as reflected by the on-site tests. Further studies on the use of VR in schizophrenia rehabilitation and for vocational success are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wang Y.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Yan C.,East China Normal University | Yin D.-Z.,East China Normal University | Fan M.-X.,East China Normal University | And 3 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2015

The current study sought to examine the underlying brain changes in individuals with high schizotypy by integrating networks derived from brain structural and functional imaging. Individuals with high schizotypy (n = 35) and low schizotypy (n = 34) controls were screened using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and underwent brain structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3T scanner. Voxel-based morphometric analysis and graph theory-based functional network analysis were conducted. Individuals with high schizotypy showed reduced gray matter (GM) density in the insula and the dorsolateral prefrontal gyrus. The graph theoretical analysis showed that individuals with high schizotypy showed similar global properties in their functional networks as low schizotypy individuals. Several hubs of the functional network were identified in both groups, including the insula, the lingual gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the rolandic operculum. More hubs in the frontal lobe and fewer hubs in the occipital lobe were identified in individuals with high schizotypy. By comparing the functional connectivity between clusters with abnormal GM density and the whole brain, individuals with high schizotypy showed weaker functional connectivity between the left insula and the putamen, but stronger connectivity between the cerebellum and the medial frontal gyrus. Taken together, our findings suggest that individuals with high schizotypy present changes in terms of GM and resting-state functional connectivity, especially in the frontal lobe. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. Source

Tse S.,University of Hong Kong | Cheung E.,Castle Peak Hospital | Kan A.,University of Hong Kong | Ng R.,Kowloon Hospital
International Review of Psychiatry | Year: 2012

This article provides an overview of mental health services (MHS) and the application of the recovery concept in Hong Kong, focusing on user participation. It presents stakeholders' views of the recovery movement in a round-table discussion format, demonstrating agreement that user participation merits more public and official attention. Some of the present difficulties with the movement are also reviewed. Social identity theory (SIT) is then analysed as a potentially useful framework for theorizing how service users' identities change as they become service providers. The paper then provides an overview of the current financial and political position of MHS, and identifies signs that the recovery approach is becoming accepted. It also addresses the cultural meanings of the concept, and sets out examples of its implementation in the health and social welfare sectors. Lastly, it summarizes the challenges facing service providers and users and concludes that as the recovery movement is still in its infancy in Hong Kong, more coordinated efforts are needed to establish the organizational support and policy framework, so that sustainable and evidence-based service provision can be achieved. © 2012 Institute of Psychiatry. Source

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the extent of weight gain in a group of patients with first-episode psychotic disorders after receiving antipsychotic treatment for 1 year, and to examine any relationship with the type of antipsychotics prescribed. Participants and Methods: A total of 160 consecutive participants with 1-year history of first-episode psychotic disorders were recruited, and their body mass index values before and 1 year after antipsychotic treatment were calculated. Results: About half of the participants gained more than 7% of their baseline body weight. In general, the participants gained a median weight of 4.8 kg (interquartile range, 0.7-9.0 kg) after 1 year of treatment. Forty percent of the female and 47% of the male participants were overweight after treatment. Patients taking second-generation antipsychotics had more severe weight gain than those taking first-generation agents. Olanzapine treatment was associated with the greatest weight gain. Conclusions: Weight gain is a significant problem even in the early stages of psychotic disorders. Health care professionals need to be aware of this issue and address it early in the course of management, so as to prevent harmful consequences of weight gain in the future. © 2010 Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists. Source

Chan R.C.K.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Li H.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Li H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Cheung E.F.C.,Castle Peak Hospital | Gong Q.-Y.,University of Sichuan
Psychiatry Research | Year: 2010

Research into facial emotion perception in schizophrenia has burgeoned over the past several decades. The evidence is mixed regarding whether patients with schizophrenia have a general facial emotion perception deficit (a deficit in facial emotion perception plus a more basic deficit in facial processing) or specific facial emotion perception deficits (deficits only in facial emotion perception tasks). A meta-analysis is conducted of 28 facial emotion perception studies that include control tasks. These studies use differential deficit designs to examine whether patients with schizophrenia demonstrate a general deficit or specific deficit in facial emotion perception. A significant mean effect size is found for total facial emotion perception (d=- 0.85). Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate impaired ability to perform corresponding control tasks, and the mean effect size is - 0.70. The current findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have moderately to severely impaired perception of facial emotion. © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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