Castaic Lake Water Agency

Castaic, CA, United States

Castaic Lake Water Agency

Castaic, CA, United States

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Drago J.A.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants | Leserman J.R.,Castaic Lake Water Agency
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2011 | Year: 2011

This paper presents the Castaic Lake Water Agency's experience with starting up and operating its new Saugus Perchlorate Treatment Facility (SPTF) located in Santa Clarita, California. The 2,400 gpm capacity plant includes a lead-lag anion exchange process for removing perchlorate from an extremely impaired groundwater (about 20 to 60 μg/L perchlorate in the blended groundwater). The resin is single use and replacement of the lead bed resin is based on its effluent perchlorate concentration reaching the perchlorate MCL of 6 μg/L. In addition to perchlorate and other compliance monitoring, CLWA must also conduct nitrosamine monitoring after virgin resin is installed to characterize the duration and extent of nitrosamine formation and implement resin installation and flushing procedures to minimize the risk of producing water with nitrosamines. The paper describes the performance of the anion exchange process before and after modifications were made to address shorter than anticipated resin bed life. The paper also describes experience with addressing nitrosamine formation and chloride peaking issues. 2011 © American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved.


Kimbrough D.E.,Castaic Lake Water Agency | Boulos L.,L. Boulos Consulting Inc. | Surawanvijit S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Westerhoff P.,Arizona State University | And 3 more authors.
Ozone: Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

In four recently published articles, a process for the oxidation of bromide to bromine and the volatilization of bromine from drinking water sources was presented. This process was shown to be able to remove up to 35% percent of the bromide found naturally in the California State Water Project. Although bromide itself is quite harmless, it has been shown to react with commonly used disinfectants to produce compounds or disinfection by-products (DBPs) of suspected carcinogens. Bromide reacts with ozone to form bromate. This article presents two studies of pilot scale, flow-through electrolytic reactors that oxidize bromide to bromine and volatilize bromine at


Thompson C.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants | Lund J.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants | Plumlee M.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants | Drago J.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants | And 2 more authors.
2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013 | Year: 2013

The USEPA Surface Water Treatment Rule Guidance Manual (GM) indicates that pipelines used as disinfection contactors should be considered to provide plug flow conditions and the T10 to hydraulic detention time (HDT) ratio should be 1.0 to 1. Unfortunately, the EPA GM does not define what pipeline length to diameter ratio range is required to provide plug flow conditions and the available information on disinfection contactors focuses on methods to determine the T10 to HDT ratio in contactors with baffled serpentine flow paths. Kennedy/Jenks Consultants and Castaic Lake Water Agency (Agency) staff conducted three tracer studies at the Agency's Rio Vista Water Treatment Plant (RVWTP) in the plant's 102-inch diameter ozone pipeline contactor. The first test was performed at the minimum plant flow rate (15 MGD), the second at the average plant flow rate (30 MGD), and the third test at 91 percent of the maximum plant flow rate (66 MGD). Water samples were collected at four ozone sample stations along the pipeline contactor to determine what the T10 to HDT ratio should be for four different length to diameter ratios. The length to diameter ratios from the tracer chemical injection point to the four sample locations were 16 to 1, 29 to 1, 41 to 1, and 188 to 1. Based on the tracer study data, it appears that all four pipeline length to diameter ratios provide plug flow conditions (T10 to HDT ratios of 1.0 to 1) for the three flow rates tested. Our presentation will describe our test program, including coordination of sample collection at locations between 140 and 1,500 feet from the tracer chemical injection location, the tracer chemical concentration curves for both the rising curve and descending curves during the six hydraulic residence times that samples were collected during each of the three test periods, and the T10 to HDT ratios for the four sample stations. We will also describe how water utilities can apply the results of these tracer tests to other pipeline contactor designs and tracer tests. © 2013 American Water Works Association AWWA WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved.


Kimbrough D.E.,Castaic Lake Water Agency | Boulos L.,L. Boulos Consulting Inc. | Surawanvijit S.,University of California at Los Angeles
Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA | Year: 2011

To reduce the concentrations of brominated disinfection by-products, a process is presented here which removes bromide from a widely used surface water source, the California State Water Project (SWP). The process consists of oxidizing bromide to bromine and volatilizing the bromine. SWP water was passed through this unit under various conditions and the bromide was oxidized and volatilized under a variety of conditions. Five different reactor bodies with seventeen different configurations were tested. The reactors differed in the depth of the anode, in the distance between the anodes and, in the surface area of the anodes. Each reactor had SWP water pumped through the reactor at three or more different flows and at four or more different currents, producing 267 experimental conditions. Both reaction rates and removal efficiency increased with increasing current and were generally higher in the shallower reactors. The highest reaction rates were observed in the shallowest reactors and highest flow rates but the greatest efficiency was achieved is in a slightly deeper reactor at lower flows. This appears to have been the effect of the shallowest reactor having the smallest surface area that was easily saturated and but being closest to atmosphere, allowing the most rapid volatilization of bromine. © IWA Publishing 2011.


Surawanvijit S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Kimbrough D.E.,Castaic Lake Water Agency | Boulos L.,L. Boulos Consulting Inc. | Zacheis A.,Carollo Engineers | Cohen Y.,University of California at Los Angeles
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

Meeting the disinfectant and disinfection by-product rules is a balancing act for water utilities as they are required to decrease microbial risks with disinfectants, while simultaneously reducing the chemical risk caused by disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The presence of bromide in drinking water supplies typically leads to the formation of brominated disinfection byproducts in chlorinated waters and limits the use of ozonation due to the formation of bromate. In this study, the impact of electrolysis on removal of bromide and subsequently the brominated DBPs in drinking water was investigated. Two bench-scale reactors employed in this study consisted of the 1-cm anode plates arranged in parallel baffles, perpendicularly to the cathode plates. The anode mesh was incorporated into one of the reactors. This paper will present the efficiency of the reactors to remove bromide from drinking water, as well as the formation potential of THMs, HAAs, and TOX in the electrolyzed water. The instantaneous formation of chlorine (a byproduct of electrolysis) and DBPs, and the feasibility of ascorbic acid to dechlorinate the water were evaluated. The seven-day formation potential of DBPs was assessed by applying sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to the electrolyzed water. The results illustrated a significant reduction in the formation potential of THMs and TOX, especially the brominated species. However, the formation potential of HAAs was not affected by electrolysis. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings All Rights Reserved.


Kimbrough D.E.,Castaic Lake Water Agency | Boulos L.,L. Boulos Consulting Inc. | Surawanvijit S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Zacheis A.,Carollo Engineers
Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition 2010 | Year: 2010

A new technology for the removal of bromide from drinking has been described in several recent publications (Kimbrough & Suffet 2002, Kimbrough & Suffet 2005, Kimbrough 2007, Boulos et al. 2008). Bromide is known to react with Natural Organic Matter and oxidative disinfectants to product brominated Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) which are thought to be carcinogens. This paper presents recent advances in this technology as applied the California State Water Project (SWP) which has historically had high concentrations of bromide and, when treated, has produced brominated DBPs. The process consists of oxidizing bromide at the anode to bromine and volatilizing the bromine at the anode surface. SWP water was passed through this unit under various conditions and the bromide was oxidized and volatilized. Variables included the depth of the anodes (0.1, 1.2, 2, 5, 10 cm), the distance between the anode (1, 2, 5, 10 mm), water flow (50-200 mL/min), and applied current (0.02-8.0 amps), producing 272 experimental conditions. Bromide reaction rates and removal efficiency were observed for each of these conditions. The highest reaction rate (1,430 μg/L/min) was observed in the shallowest reactors (0.1 cm) and under the highest flow rates (150 mL/min), but the greatest removal efficiency (69%) was achieved in a slightly deeper reactor (1.2 cm) at lower flows (50 mL/min). When these two reactor configurations were combined, even greater removal efficiencies were obtained (>99%) but not greater reaction rates. There appears to be a general relation that the shallower the reactor is, the greater the reaction rates. However, since this also means less surface area, the shallower reactors are easily saturated. The development of this technology will require the balancing of anode depth to maximize the volatilization rates with the need for greater anodic surface area to maximize oxidation and gas formation rates. 2010 © American Water Works Association WQTC Conference Proceedings. All Rights Reserved.


An inter-laboratory study was conducted to assess the Kaiser-Currie Model (KCM) for the determination of detection limits. Six laboratories participated in the analysis of samples prepared from distilled water, some containing organo-chlorine pesticides at a concentration of zero and other with a greater than zero concentration. The study consisted of three phases, the first of which was a study to assess the longer term variability of distilled water samples containing no organo-chlorine pesticides prepared by the participating laboratory analysed over a six month period. A second phase consisted of replicates of distilled water samples containing organo-chlorine pesticides prepared at a single concentration greater than zero by the laboratory and were analysed over several days. Finally, a third phase consisted of twelve distilled water samples, eleven containing organo-chlorine pesticides at a concentration of greater than zero and one with a concentration of zero prepared by a third party. Estimated detection limits were determined and then compared to the observed detection limits. Only in a minority of cases, where the distribution of results from samples containing a concentration of zero was normally distributed, did Currie's L C accurately predict a concentration which corresponded to a 1% false positive rate in distilled water samples with a zero concentration of the study analyte. The USEPA's MDL performed more poorly. In the majority of cases, when any non-zero results were obtained from distilled water samples containing a concentration of zero, they were not normally distributed. Contrary to expectation, false negatives and false positives rarely occurred simultaneously on any given day. The variability between days of analysis and the use of noise reducing techniques proved to be a significant source of the observed non-normal distribution of distilled water samples. Conventional procedures based on the KCM and their underlying analytical and statistical assumptions did not provide useful predictions of laboratory sensitivity in most cases in this study. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Kimbrough D.E.,Castaic Lake Water Agency
International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

An interlaboratory study was conducted to assess two widely used procedures for estimating quantitation levels. Six laboratories participated in the analysis of artificially prepared water samples for organo-chlorine compounds by liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector using USEPA Method 608. The study consisted of three phases, including six months of results from analyte free samples, the replicate analysis of fortified samples at a single concentration by the laboratory, and finally the analysis of blind fortified samples prepared by a third party. Estimated detection and quantitation limits (Currie's L C and L Q and USEPA's MDL and ML) were determined for each laboratory-method-analyte combination and then compared to the observed detection and quantitation limits. The overwhelming majority of analyte free samples had a reported value of zero. As a result, observed quantitation and detection limits were frequently zero. When they were not zero, the observed quantitation limits were sometimes less than the observed detection limits and when they were not, there was no observed fixed ratio between the quantitation and detection limits. The variability between days of analysis and the use of noise reducing techniques proved to be a significant source of the observed non-normal distribution of results from distilled water samples with a concentration of zero. Conventional procedures and their underlying analytical and statistical assumptions did not provide useful predictions of laboratory quantitation based upon the results of this study. Rather than one time statistical determinations, ongoing verification of quantitation limits may be a better approach. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


News Article | December 14, 2016
Site: www.24-7pressrelease.com

CAMARILLO, CA, December 14, 2016 /24-7PressRelease/ -- As Ventura County enters its sixth year of drought, the 20th annual meeting of the Economic Development Collaborative-Ventura County (EDC-VC) will explore the theme "Drowning in Drought: Sustainable Water Solutions." Featured will be keynote speakers Susan Mulligan, general manager, Calleguas Municipal Water District, and Mauricio E. Guardado, Jr., general manager, United Water Conservation District. "All communities are feeling the impact of declining water supplies. We've brought in the experts who will explore innovative ways to address the long-term need," said Bruce Stenslie, EDC-VC president and CEO. In addition to the speakers, attendees will enjoy a celebration to mark EDC-VC's 20th anniversary and a video noting its accomplishments and positive economic impact on the region. The event is Jan. 19 from 3-7 p.m. at Spanish Hills Country Club, 999 Crestview Ave., Camarillo. "Susan and Mauricio both have extensive hands-on experience and insight regarding the region's water woes and opportunities. We're excited to hear their knowledge and perspective on some of the newest proposals for managing the region's water demands, such as the creation of water markets and the proposed 30-mile twin tunnels project," said Stenslie. The speakers will address innovative uses for recycled wastewater, desalination of groundwater and seawater, stormwater capture and conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water to improve supply reliability. A native of Southern California, Mulligan earned her Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from Stanford University and her master's degree in business administration from UCLA. Mulligan joined Calleguas Municipal Water District in 1993 as manager of engineering, with responsibility for design and construction of capital projects. In 2010 she took on the position of general manager with the goal of providing water reliability in an economically responsible manner. She is a registered civil engineer and a certified Grade 5 water treatment plant operator in the State of California. Guardado joined United Water Conservation District as general manager in August 2015. Prior to joining United, Guardado served nine years as retail manager/CEO for the Santa Clarita Water Division of Castaic Lake Water Agency, seven years as director of engineering for Cucamonga Valley Water District, and four years as project engineer with San Gabriel Valley Water Company. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from California State University, Northridge and a master's degree from University of Southern California's Executive Master of Leadership Program. He is a registered civil engineer in the State of California. EDC-VC's annual meeting has a long history of bringing together business leaders from throughout the region who attend to learn about vitally important topics to our region's economy. Cost is $75, dinner is included. For reservations or information, call 805-384-1800, ext. 21 or visit http://www.edc-vc.com. EDC-VC is a private, nonprofit organization that serves as a business-to-government liaison to assist businesses in Ventura County by offering programs that enhance the economic vitality of the region. For more information about the services available to small businesses through EDC-VC, contact Stenslie at 805-384-1800, ext. 21 or bruce.stenslie@edc-vc.com. Or visit http://www.edc-vc.com.

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