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Casper, WY, United States

Giant honey bees (Apis dorsata) of southern Asia are vital honey producers and pollinators of cultivated crops and wild plants. They are known to migrate seasonally up to 200 km. It has been assumed their migrations occur stepwise, with stops for rest and foraging, but bivouacking bees have rarely been seen by scientists. Here I report discovery of a site in northern Thailand where bivouacs appeared in large congregations during the wet seasons of 2009 and 2010. The bivouac congregation stopover site is a small mango orchard along the Pai River. Bivouacs rested in branches of mango and other tree species in the immediate vicinity. Departures were preceded by dances indicating approximate direction and apparently, distance of flights. Such consistent stopover sites likely occur throughout southern Asia and may support critical, vulnerable stages in the life history of giant honey bees that must be conserved for populations of the species to survive. © 2012 Robinson. Source


Laudner K.G.,Illinois State University | Moline M.,Casper College | Meister K.,The Texas Institute
Journal of Sport Rehabilitation | Year: 2012

Context: Posterior shoulder tightness has been associated with altered shoulder range of motion (ROM) and several pathologic entities in baseball players. This tightness is hypothesized to be the result of the cumulative stress placed on the posterior shoulder during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The role of the posterior shoulder static restraints is to absorb this load while the glenohumeral (GH) external rotators eccentrically decelerate the arm after ball release and therefore also help dissipate this force. As such, the authors hypothesized that if the GH external rotators are weak, an excessive amount of this deceleration force is placed on the static restraints, which may lead to subsequent tightness. Objective: To compare the relationship between GH external-rotation strength and posterior shoulder tightness as measured by GH horizontal-adduction and internal-rotation ROM. Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: 45 professional baseball players. Main Outcome Measures: GH external-rotation strength and GH horizontal-adduction and internalrotation ROM. Results: GH external-rotation strength showed no relationship with either GH horizontaladduction ROM (r 2 = .02, P = .40) or GH internal-rotation ROM (r 2 = .002, P = .77). Conclusion: There is little to no relationship between GH external-rotation strength and posterior shoulder tightness in professional baseball players. The posterior static restraints of the shoulder may absorb a large majority of the deceleration forces during the throwing motion. Although strengthening of the posterior shoulder dynamic restraints should not be overlooked, routine stretching of the static restraints may be more beneficial for decreasing posterior shoulder tightness and the subsequent risks associated with this tightness, although future research is warranted. © 2012 Human Kinetics, Inc. Source


Reynolds J.H.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Thompson W.L.,National Park Service | Russell B.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | Russell B.,Casper College
Biological Conservation | Year: 2011

Selecting a survey design to detect change through time in an ecological resource requires balancing the speed with which a given level of change can be detected against the cost of monitoring. Planning studies allow one to assess these tradeoffs and identify the optimal design choices for a specific scenario of change. However, such studies seldom are conducted. Even worse, they seem least likely to be undertaken when they offer the most insight - when survey methods and monitoring designs are complex and not well captured by simple statistical models. This may be due to limited technical capacity within management agencies. Without such planning, managers risk a potentially severe waste of monitoring resources on ineffective and inefficient monitoring, and institutions will remain ignorant of the true costs of information and the potential efficiency gains afforded by a moderate increase in technical capacity. We discuss the importance of planning studies, outline their main components, and illustrate the process through an investigation of competing designs for monitoring for declining brown bear (Ursus arctos) densities in southwestern Alaska. The results provide guidance on how long monitoring must be sustained before any change is likely to be detected (under a scenario of rather strong true decline), the optimal designs for detecting a change, and a tradeoff where accepting a delay of 2. years in detecting the change could reduce the monitoring cost by almost 50%. This report emphasizes the importance of planning studies for guiding monitoring decisions. © 2010. Source


Robinson W.S.,Casper College
Journal of Apicultural Research | Year: 2011

I observed a colony of Apis andreniformis in a mango orchard in northern Thailand over a period of 10 days in September 2009. Here I report on colour variability of the workers, and swarm shape and movement patterns as it absconded three times in that period. Twice the swarm built comb. Workers constructed resin bands to repel ants, and defended against hornets by shimmering and forming a tail. They were not aggressive toward me. Workers on the mantle ventilated, head downwards, in the heat of the day when struck by sunlight. Dancing occurred on the crown of the swarm, all but one observed dance of short (1-2 sec) duration. One longer, staggering dance may have indicated a pending relocation by the swarm. © IBRA 2011. Source


Deus K.M.,Colorado State University | Deus K.M.,Casper College | Saavedra-Rodriguez K.,Colorado State University | Butters M.P.,Colorado State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

Seven different strains of Aedes aegypti (L.), including a genetically diverse laboratory strain, three laboratory-selected permethrin-resistant strains, a standard reference strain, and two recently colonized strains were fed on human blood containing various concentrations of ivermectin. Ivermectin reduced adult survival, fecundity, and hatch rate of eggs laid by ivermectin-treated adults in all seven strains. The LC 50 of ivermectin for adults and the concentration that prevented 50% of eggs from hatching was calculated for all strains. Considerable variation in adult survival after an ivermectin-bloodmeal occurred among strains, and all three permethrin-resistant strains were significantly less susceptible to ivermectin than the standard reference strain. The hatch rate after an ivermectin bloodmeal was less variable among strains, and only one of the permethrin-resistant strains differed significantly from the standard reference strain. Our studies suggest that ivermectin induces adult mortality and decreases the hatch rate of eggs through different mechanisms. A correlation analysis of log-transformed LC 50 among strains suggests that permethrin and ivermectin cross-resistance may occur. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source

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