Kalaivanan D.,Cashew Research |
Sudhir K.,UAS |
Kotur S.C.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Vegetos | Year: 2014
Absorption of applied 32P by the treated as well as neighbouring banana cv. Robusta plants under high density planting was studied on a sandy clay loam soil using 32P labelled super phosphate with application of three levels of P fertilizers viz., 60, 80, and 100 per cent at 15-35, 35-55 and 55-75 cm distance from pseudostem of the plant. The first, 2nd and 3rd dose of urea, labelled single superphosphate and muriate of potash was applied to banana at early vegetative (8th leaf/65 DAP), late vegetative (16th leaf/115 DAP) and bud differentiation stages (165 DAP). Higher 32P absorption (dpm/g of dry matter) in leaf was observed in the treatments supplied 100 per cent of recommended dose of fertilizers at closer distance of 15 to 35 cm distance from pseudostem during first split application and at middle distance of 35 to 55 cm from pseudostem during second and third split application. The maximum per cent phosphorus derived from fertilizer (% Pdff) was also recorded with the application of 100 per cent recommended dose of P fertilizers in the middle distance of 35-55 cm from the pseudostem of the experimental plant. No significant difference was observed in the leaves of Robusta banana. The study has brought out the differential nature of the absorption pattern in treated plant and border plants with different levels and placement of fertilizers. Radiophosphorus applied to the root zone was absorbed by the treated plant and the neighbouring plants. © 2014, Society for Plant Research. All Rights Reserved.
Yadukumar N.,Cashew Research |
Rejani R.,Cashew Research |
Nandan S.L.,Cashew Research |
Prabhakar B.,Cashew Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2013
The study on nutrient budgeting and nutrient balance was conducted to determine the optimal fertilizer requirement for cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) under high-density planting system in relation to yield and net profit. The sixyear old plantation of cashew Bhaskara variety under high-density planting system (625 trees/ha) was used. A negative N, P and K balance of 113, 22 and 45 kg/ha/year was found in the control plot where no fertilizers were applied. A strong positive N balance ranged from 137 to 251, P balance from 34 to 75 and K balance from 89 to 164 kg/ha/year were found in trees with two-thirds and full doses of fertilizer treatments. In treatments with one-third dose of fertilizers, a positive N, P and K balance of 40, 19 and 40 kg/ha/year were found. This indicates that in high-density planting system, existing fertilizer schedule, viz. recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) is on higher side and optimal dose of fertilizer required is only one-third of the RDF. The yield and net profit in full dose and one-third dose of fertilizer treatments were on par. The higher yield of 1.47 and 1.41 tonnes/ha/year and a net profit of 40 030 and 41 274/ha/year were obtained in these two treatments. The application of one-third dose of fertilizer to soil instead of recommended dose of fertilizer not only helps to reduce the input required and cost of cultivation but also the ecological hazards arising from excess inorganic fertilizer application. Hence, one-third dose of fertilizer is optimal for cashew plantation under high-density planting system.
Biology, behavior, functional response and molecular characterization of rihirbus trochantericus stal var. Luteous (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) a potential predator of helopeltis Spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae)
Bhat P.S.,Cashew Research |
Srikumar K.K.,Cashew Research |
Raviprasad T.N.,Cashew Research |
Vanitha K.,Cashew Research |
And 2 more authors.
Entomological News | Year: 2013
Reduviid species are recorded as indigenous natural enemies of tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis spp.), which is one of the major economically important pests of cashew. Rihirbus trochantericus laid eggs singly as well as in groups of up to 26 eggs in 3 to 7 clusters per female. The incubation period was 13.00 ± 0.69 days. The stadial durations of I, II, III, IV and V nymphs were 12.39 ± 1.13, 7.00 ± 0.39, 7.56 ± 0.35, 9.28 ± 0.64 and 12.78 ± 1.27 days, respectively. Adult males and females survived for 107.13 ± 2.70 and 117.9 ± 3.83 days, respectively and their sex ratio was 1: 0.7. The sequential acts of prédation as well as mating conform to those of Harpactorine reduviids. R. trochantericus exhibited Holling's type II functional response. The molecular characterization of R. trochantericus will be highly useful in confirming the identity of the species in any of its life stages.
Dinakara Adiga J.,Cashew Research |
Eradasappa E.,Cashew Research |
Mohana G.S.,Cashew Research |
Meena R.K.,Cashew Research |
Bhat M.G.,Cashew Research
Vegetos | Year: 2015
In cashew, dwarf and compact canopy types have been developed at Directorate of Cashew Research, Puttur by using the cultivars named Bhaskara, NRCC Selection-2 and Ullal-3 as female parents and dwarf and/or compact types, namely Taliparamba-1, Kodippady-2 and NRC- 492(exotic dwarf type) as male parents, with a total of 9 combinations during 2008 and successful crosses were field planted during 2009. Lower means for plant height, girth and canopy spread, which are desirable features for evolving dwarf and compact types were observed in Ullal-3 x Taliparmba- 1 (2.51m, 22.60cm and 2.40 sq.m. respectively). Said combination was associated with lower mean value for nut yield. The mean plant height, girth, canopy spread and nut yield per tree in the first harvest was more in Ullal-3 X NRC- 492 (3.08m, 26.17cm, 3.16 sq.m., 1.01kg, respectively) compared to other crosses. The cross Bhaskara X Taliparamba- 1 exhibited higher percentage of dwarf plants (56.36) followed by Ullal-3 X Taliparamba-1 (50.0) with desirable height (<2.5m). For compact canopy (<3.0 m), the cross Ullal-3 X Taliparamba- 1 was found superior (77.28 % plants) followed by Bhaskara X Taliparamba-1 (74.55%). © 2015 Society for Plant Research. All rights reserved.
Balsubramanian D.,Cashew Research
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2011
A radial arm type cashew nut sheller (RCS) was developed to ease shelling operation in the cashew nut processing industries. The basic principle of cutting and shearing was employed to extract the edible kernel from a steam boiled cashew nut in a single operation. The developed sheller could be operated in a sitting posture reducing the operator drudgery experienced in the existing type sheller in Indian cashew nut processing industries. The operational capacity and the quantitative efficiency of the developed sheller was 9.30 kg hr-1 and 87.52 %, respectively. The qualitative efficiency was determined in terms of whole kernel recovery as it fetched premium price. The ratio between whole to broken kernels was 9.84, which was 2.04 times more than the hand cum pedal operated sheller (HPS) for steam treated cashew nuts. The cost of the sheller was Rs. 2,050, which was15 % more than HPS.