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Portico di Caserta, Italy

Ingrasciotta Y.,Messina University | Sultana J.,Messina University | Giorgianni F.,Messina University | Fontana A.,Unit of Biostatistics | And 7 more authors.

Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are known to be associated with renal damage. No clear evidence exists regarding differential risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), specifically, across various NSAIDs. Aim: The aim of this population-based case-control study was to evaluate the association between use of individual NSAIDs and risk of CKD in a general population of Southern Italy. Methods: A nested case-control study was carried out using the general practice Arianna database, identifying incident CKD patients as cases and matched controls from 2006 to 2011. The date of first CKD diagnosis was defined as the index date (ID). Conditional logistic regressions were performed to estimate the risk of CKD associated with NSAIDs by class and individual drugs as compared to non-use during different time windows (within one year, six or three months prior to ID), with the latter being defined as current users. Among current users, the effect of cumulative exposure to these drugs was evaluated. Results: Overall, 1,989 CKD cases and 7,906 matched controls were identified. A statistically significant increase in the risk of CKD was found for current users of oxicams (adjusted OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.15-2.44) and concerning individual compounds, for ketorolac (adj. OR: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.45-4.44), meloxicam (adj. OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.01-3.87) and piroxicam (adj. OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.19-3.21). Conclusions: The risk of CKD varies across individual NSAIDs. Increased risk has been found for ketorolac, which may precipitate subclinical CKD through acute renal damage, and long-term exposure to oxicams, especially meloxicam and piroxicam. © 2015 Ingrasciotta et al. Source

Sultana J.,Messina University | Musazzi U.M.,University of Milan | Ingrasciotta Y.,Messina University | Giorgianni F.,Messina University | And 7 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

Background and aims: Hyperphosphatemia increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity but the use of medicines as a source of phosphate has not been investigated yet. This study aims to explore the use of absorbable phosphate-containing drugs in CKD patients. Methods and results: Incident CKD patients were identified within the Arianna database (containing data from 158,510 persons in Caserta (Southern Italy) registered with 123 general practitioners) from 2005 to 2011. Drugs prescribed to these patients were classified as phosphate-containing based on the summary of product characteristics (SPC), PubChem and Micromedex. The number and duration of prescriptions for these drugs as well as the overall intake of phosphate were estimated.Out of 1989 CKD patients, 1381 (70%) were prescribed 266 medicinal products containing absorbable phosphate over a median follow-up of 6 years (interquartile range (IQR) = 5.2-6.0). Most patients were prescribed ATC A (650; 47.1%) and C (660; 47.8%) phosphate-containing drug products targeting the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system for a median of 232 (IQR: 56-656) and 224 (IQR: 56-784) days respectively. Conclusions: Several medications, especially chronically prescribed ones, contain absorbable phosphate. This study's findings confirm the relevance of medicines as a phosphate source for the first time. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Orlando V.,University of Naples Federico II | Guerriero F.,University of Naples Federico II | Putignano D.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Monetti V.M.,University of Naples Federico II | And 5 more authors.
Current Diabetes Reviews

The treatment of diabetes in the elderly is a major challenge both in terms of clinical management and of public health. Evidence about prescribing patterns in the elderly diabetic population is limited. The aim was to describe trends in antidiabetic drug (AD) utilization patterns in the elderly in Southern Italy with a focus on drugs for cardiovascular prevention and pharmaceutical costs. The data used for this study were obtained from pharmacy records of Caserta Local Health Authority, a province in Southern Italy with 1 million of inhabitants, comprising urban and rural areas. Subjects above 65 years who received at least one dispensing of antidiabetic between January 2010 and December 2014 were selected. Prevalence and incidence rates (%) of AD use were calculated for each calendar year and stratified by class therapy and age group. Sub-analyses by cardiovascular co-medication therapy and pharmaceutical cost analysis were performed. The prevalence rate decreases from 22.0% in 2010 to 17.5% in 2014 (p<0.001). Proportion of subjects treated with monotherapy increases over the study period (33.9% in 2010; 38.6% in 2014; p<0.001). In particular, increases the proportion of users of metformin (18.2% in 2010; 23.7% in 2014; p<0.001), while the proportion of users of sulfonylureas dropped (11.0% in 2010; 7.2% in 2014; p< 0.001). About 90% of elderly diabetic patients are treated with drugs for cardiovascular prevention. The per/patient/yearly drug costs were 2,349 _: 28.5% for AD therapy and 71.5% for other treatments. Trend in drug utilization patterns showed a tendency towards treatment recommendations in older adults. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Ingrasciotta Y.,Messina University | Sultana J.,Messina University | Giorgianni F.,Messina University | Caputi A.P.,Messina University | And 10 more authors.

Background: The use of nephrotoxic drugs can further worsening renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is therefore imperative to explore prescribing practices that can negatively affect CKD patients. Aim: To analyze the use of nephrotoxic drugs in CKD patients in a general population of Southern Italy during the years 2006-2011. Methods: The general practice "Arianna" database contains data from 158,510 persons, registered with 123 general practitioners (GPs) of Caserta. CKD patients were identified searching: CKD-related ICD-9 CM codes among causes of hospitalization; CKD-relevant procedures undergone in hospital (e.g. dialysis); drug prescriptions issued for a CKD-related indication. A list of nephrotoxic drugs was compiled and validated by pharmacologists and nephrologists. The summary of product characteristics was used to classify drugs as 'contraindicated' or 'to be used with caution' in renal diseases. Frequency of nephrotoxic drug use, overall, by drug class and single compounds, by GPs within one year prior or after first CKD diagnosis and within one year after dialysis entry was calculated. Results: Overall, 1,989 CKD patients and 112 dialysed patients were identified. Among CKD patients, 49.8% and 45.2% received at least one prescription for a contraindicated nephrotoxic drug within one year prior or after first CKD diagnosis, respectively. In detail, 1,119 CKD patients (56.3%) had at least one nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prescription between CKD diagnosis and end of follow-up. A large proportion of CKD patients (35.6%) were treated with NSAIDs for periods exceeding 90 days. Contraindicated nephrotoxic drugs were used commonly in CKD, with nimesulide (16.6%) and diclofenac (11.0%) being most frequently used. Conclusions: Contraindicated nephrotoxic drugs were highly prescribed in CKD patients from a general population of Southern Italy. CKD diagnosis did not seem to reduce significantly the prescription of nephrotoxic drugs, which may increase the risk of preventable renal function deterioration. © 2014 Ingrasciotta et al. Source

Italiano D.,Messina University | Capuano A.,The Second University of Naples | Alibrandi A.,Messina University | Ferrara R.,Messina University | And 11 more authors.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology

Aims The aim of the study was to analyze the prescribing pattern of both newer and older AEDs. Methods A population of almost 150 000 individuals registered with 123 general practitioners was included in this study. Patients who received at least one AED prescription over 2005-2011 were identified. The 1 year prevalence and cumulative incidence of AED use, by drug class and individual drug, were calculated over the study period. Potential predictors of starting therapy with newer AEDs were also investigated. Results The prevalence of use per 1000 inhabitants of older AEDs increased from 10.7 (95% CI10.1, 11.2) in 2005 to 13.0 (95% CI12.4, 13.6) in 2011, while the incidence remained stable. Newer AED incidence decreased from 9.4 (95% CI 8.9, 9.9) in 2005 to 7.0 (95% CI 6.6, 7.5) in 2011, with a peak of 15.5 (95% CI 14.8, 16.1) in 2006. Phenobarbital and valproic acid were the most commonly prescribed AEDs as starting therapy for epilepsy. Gabapentin and pregabalin accounted for most new pain-related prescriptions, while valproic acid and lamotrigine were increasingly used for mood disorders. Female gender (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20, 1.53), age ranging between 45-54 years (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.16, 1.66) and pain as an indication (OR 16.7, 95% CI, 13.1, 21.2) were associated with newer AEDs starting therapy. Conclusions Older AEDs were mainly used for epileptic and mood disorders, while newer drugs were preferred for neuropathic pain. Gender, age, indication of use and year of starting therapy influenced the choice of AED type. The decrease of newer AED use during 2007 is probably related to the restricted reimbursement criteria for gabapentin and pregabalin. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society. Source

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