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Cleveland, OH, United States

Case Western Reserve University is a private research university in Cleveland, Ohio. The university was created in 1967 by the federation of Case Institute of Technology and Western Reserve University . TIME magazine described the merger as the creation of "Cleveland's Big-Leaguer" university.In U.S. News & World Report's 2013 rankings, Case Western Reserve's undergraduate program ranked 37th among national universities. The University is associated with 16 Nobel laureates. Other notable alumni include Paul Buchheit, creator and lead developer of Gmail; Craig Newmark, founder of craigslist.org; and Peter Tippett, who developed the anti-virus software Vaccine, which Symantec purchased and turned into the popular Norton AntiVirus. Case Western Reserve is particularly well known for its medical school, business school, dental school, law school, Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing , Department of Biomedical Engineering and its biomedical teaching and research capabilities. Case Western is a member of the Association of American Universities.The university is approximately five miles east of downtown Cleveland in University Circle. It is contained within a 550-acre area containing numerous educational, medical, and cultural institutions. Case Western Reserve has a number of programs taught in conjunction with nearby institutions, including the Cleveland Clinic, the University Hospitals of Cleveland, the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland Institute of Music, the Cleveland Hearing & Speech Center, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, and the Cleveland Play House.Case Western Reserve was the site of the famous Michelson-Morley interferometer experiment, conducted in 1887 by Albert A. Michelson of Case School of Applied Science and Edward W. Morley of Western Reserve University. This experiment proved the non-existence of the luminiferous ether and was later cited as convincing evidence in support of special relativity as proposed by Albert Einstein in 1905. Michelson became the first American to win a Nobel Prize in science. The commemorative Michelson-Morley Memorial Fountain is located on campus, near where the actual experiment was performed. Wikipedia.

Ismail-Beigi F.,Case Western Reserve University
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

A 39-year-old man with a 2-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus presents for care. He has no microvascular or macrovascular complications. His family history is positive for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in his mother and older brother. On examination, his weight is 99.8 kg (220 lb), with a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 37, and his blood pressure is 125/85 mm Hg. His glycated hemoglobin level is 8.9%, serum creatinine level 1.0 mg per deciliter (88.4 μmol per liter), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 88 mg per deciliter (2.3 mmol per liter), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol 45 mg per deciliter (1.2 mmol per liter), and triglyceride level 130 mg per deciliter (1.5 mmol per liter); he does not have microalbuminuria. His medications include metformin (500 mg twice daily), glipizide (5 mg twice daily), simvastatin (20 mg daily), and lisinopril (10 mg daily). What would you recommend to improve his glycemic control? Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Hyun I.,Case Western Reserve University
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2010

Discussion of the bioethics of human stem cell research has transitioned from controversies over the source of human embryonic stem cells to concerns about the ethical use of stem cells in basic and clinical research. Key areas in this evolving ethical discourse include the derivation and use of other human embryonic stem cell-like stem cells that have the capacity to differentiate into all types of human tissue and the use of all types of stem cells in clinical research. Each of these issues is discussed as I summarize the past, present, and future bioethical issues in stem cell research.

Since their introduction to clinical practice in the 1950s, sulfonylureas have been widely prescribed for use in patients with type 2 diabetes. Of all the other medications currently available for clinical use, only metformin has been used more frequently. However, several new drug classes have emerged that are reported to have equal glucose-lowering efficacy and greater safety when added to treatment of patients in whom metformin monotherapy is no longer sufficient. Moreover, current arguments also suggest that the alternative drugs may be superior to sulfonylureas with regard to the risk of cardiovascular complications. Thus, while there is universal agreement that metformin should remain the first-line pharmacologic therapy for those in whom lifestylemodification is insufficient to control hyperglycemia, there is no consensus as to which drug should be added to metformin. Therefore, given the current controversy, we provide a Point-Counterpoint on this issue. In the preceding point narrative, Dr. Abrahamson provides his argument suggesting that avoiding use of sulfonylureas as a class of medication as an add-on to metformin is not appropriate as there are many patients whose glycemic control would improve with use of these drugs with minimal risk of adverse events. In the counterpoint narrative below, Dr. Genuth suggests there is no longer a need for sulfonylureas to remain a first-line addition to metformin for those patients whose clinical characteristics are appropriate and whose health insurance and/or financial resources make an alternative drug affordable. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association.

Jankowsky E.,Case Western Reserve University
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2011

RNA helicases are ubiquitous, highly conserved enzymes that participate in nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism. These proteins bind or remodel RNA or RNA-protein complexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. How RNA helicases physically perform their cellular tasks has been a longstanding question, but in recent years, intriguing models have started to link structure, mechanism and biological function for some RNA helicases. This review outlines our current view on major structural and mechanistic themes of RNA helicase function, and on emerging physical models for cellular roles of these enzymes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Salz H.K.,Case Western Reserve University
Current Opinion in Genetics and Development | Year: 2011

The gene regulatory networks that control sex determination vary between species. Despite these differences, comparative studies in insects have found that alternative splicing is reiteratively used in evolution to control expression of the key sex-determining genes. Sex determination is best understood in Drosophila where activation of the RNA binding protein-encoding gene Sex-lethal is the central female-determining event. Sex-lethal serves as a genetic switch because once activated it controls its own expression by a positive feedback splicing mechanism. Sex fate choice in is also maintained by self-sustaining positive feedback splicing mechanisms in other dipteran and hymenopteran insects, although different RNA binding protein-encoding genes function as the binary switch. Studies exploring the mechanisms of sex-specific splicing have revealed the extent to which sex determination is integrated with other developmental regulatory networks. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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