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Till J.E.,Risk Assessment Corporation | Grogan H.A.,Cascade Scientific Inc. | Mohler H.J.,Bridger Scientific Inc. | Rocco J.R.,Sage Risk Solutions LLC | And 2 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2012

This paper describes a methodology called Risk Analysis, Communication, Evaluation, and Reduction (RACER©) that converts environmental data directly to human health risk to enhance decision making and communication. The methodology was developed and implemented following the Cerro Grande fire in New Mexico that burned approximately 7,500 acres of Los Alamos National Laboratory in May 2000. The absence of a coordinated and comprehensive approach to managing and understanding environmental data was a major weakness in the responding agencies' ability to make and communicate decisions. RACER consists of three basic elements: managing information, converting information to knowledge, and communicating knowledge to decision makers and stakeholders. Data are maintained in a web-accessible database that accepts data as they are validated and uploaded. The user can select data for evaluation and convert them to knowledge using human health risk as a benchmark for ranking radionuclides, chemicals, pathways, or other criteria needed to make decisions. Knowledge about risk is communicated using graphic and tabular formats. The process is transparent, flexible, and rapid, which enhances credibility and trust among decision makers and stakeholders. The fundamental principles used in RACER can be applied anywhere radionuclides or chemicals are present in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Health Physics Society. Source

Cascade Scientific Incorporated | Date: 2013-11-12

Laboratory apparatus and instruments, namely, homogenizers.; Laboratory apparatus, namely, centrifuges; Laboratory countertops; Laboratory equipment and supplies, namely, incubators; Laboratory equipment, namely, ductless fume enclosures and forensic drying cabinets; Laboratory equipment, namely, electric bath heaters; Laboratory equipment, namely, pipette racks; Laboratory furniture; Laboratory sinks; Laminar flow biological safety cabinet hoods for laboratory use; Scalpels for laboratory use; Steam sterilizers for laboratory use.

Till J.E.,Risk Assessment Corporation | Aanenson J.W.,Freeman Inc. | Grogan H.A.,Cascade Scientific Inc. | Mohler H.J.,Bridger Scientific Inc. | Voilleque P.G.,MJP Risk Assessment Inc.
Radiation Research | Year: 2014

Methods were developed to calculate individual estimates of exposure and dose with associated uncertainties for a sub-cohort (1,857) of 115,329 military veterans who participated in at least one of seven series of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests or the TRINITY shot carried out by the United States. The tests were conducted at the Pacific Proving Grounds and the Nevada Test Site. Dose estimates to specific organs will be used in an epidemiological study to investigate leukemia and male breast cancer. Previous doses had been estimated for the purpose of compensation and were generally high-sided to favor the veteran's claim for compensation in accordance with public law. Recent efforts by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) to digitize the historical records supporting the veterans' compensation assessments make it possible to calculate doses and associated uncertainties. Our approach builds upon available film badge dosimetry and other measurement data recorded at the time of the tests and incorporates detailed scenarios of exposure for each veteran based on personal, unit, and other available historical records. Film badge results were available for approximately 25% of the individuals, and these results assisted greatly in reconstructing doses to unbadged persons and in developing distributions of dose among military units. This article presents the methodology developed to estimate doses for selected cancer cases and a 1% random sample of the total cohort of veterans under study. © 2014 by Radiation Research Society. Source

Seah M.P.,National Physical Laboratory United Kingdom | Mulcahy C.P.A.,Cascade Scientific Inc. | Mulcahy C.P.A.,Asylum Research UK Ltd. | Biswas S.,Cascade Scientific Inc.
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics | Year: 2010

An analysis is made of the sputter depth profiling of ultrathin silicon dioxide layers on silicon to evaluate the variation in the sputtering rate in the first few nanometers. Such changes in sputtering rate are important for the development of the analysis of nanoparticles. Cs+ ions are chosen as an example of a metal ion popular in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies that provide excellent depth resolution. It is found that, if it is assumed that the signal is linear with oxygen content, the sputtering rate falls rapidly by a factor of 4.8, with an exponential decay near 1.2 nm when using 600 eV Cs+ ions at 60° incidence angle. The interface may be described by the integral of the response function of Dowsett developed for SIMS depth profiling of delta layers with λu =0.5 nm, λd =0.7 nm, and σ=0.4 nm, showing the excellent depth resolution. However, if published data for the nonlinearity of the signal with oxygen content are used, the rapid change is still seen but with an initial sputtering rate that is reduced from the above 4.8 to 3.5 times that at equilibrium. © 2010 American Vacuum Society. Source

Mohler H.J.,Bridger Scientific Inc. | Grogan H.A.,Cascade Scientific Inc. | Rocco J.R.,Sage Risk Solutions LLC | Kiefer R.F.,1217 Bandana Boulevard North | Till J.E.,Risk Assessment Corporation
Health Physics | Year: 2012

To facilitate access to and use of environmental measurement data, Risk Assessment Corporation has developed a data management system as part of its Risk Analysis, Communication, Evaluation, and Reduction process. The concepts of data consistency are not new, but many data management applications are developed around managing the entire data life cycle, rather than on using the data to reach meaningful conclusions. The RACER process is specifically focused on the efficient use of available data to promote sound decision making. The RACER data management system provides a means of understanding trends in data, comparing data to frequently referenced comparison values, and organizing environmental measurement data for use by other components of the RACER process that evaluate human health impacts. Data transfers to the system can be automated to occur frequently for facilities collecting large volumes of data to achieve a dynamic point of access to measurement data that reflects the most recently available information. Because the RACER process is designed around the most common uses of data, its utility spans a broad range of potential applications, from routine monitoring and reporting to emergency response decision making based on potential human health impacts. Because it is portable and flexible, the elements of the system can be used in any situation where there is a need to efficiently access and interpret environmental measurement data. Its output and functions are equally relevant for small datasets with hundreds of measurements or large and complex datasets with millions of measurements. Copyright © by the Health Physics Society. Source

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