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Faggio G.,University of Reggio Calabria | Capasso A.,Casaccia Research Center | Messina G.,University of Reggio Calabria | Santangelo S.,University of Reggio Calabria | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2013

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is widely utilized to synthesize graphene with controlled properties for many applications, especially when continuous films over large areas are required. Although hydrocarbons such as methane are quite efficient precursors for CVD at high temperature (∼1000 °C), finding less explosive and safer carbon sources is considered beneficial for the transition to large-scale production. In this work, we investigated the CVD growth of graphene using ethanol, which is a harmless and readily processable carbon feedstock that is expected to provide favorable kinetics. We tested a wide range of synthesis conditions (i.e., temperature, time, gas ratios), and on the basis of systematic analysis by Raman spectroscopy, we identified the optimal parameters for producing highly crystalline graphene with different numbers of layers. Our results demonstrate the importance of high temperature (1070 °C) for ethanol CVD and emphasize the significant effects that hydrogen and water vapor, coming from the thermal decomposition of ethanol, have on the crystal quality of the synthesized graphene. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Antonelli F.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Antonelli F.,Casaccia Research Center | Campa A.,Instituto Superiore Of Sanita | Campa A.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | And 14 more authors.
Radiation Research | Year: 2015

The spatial distribution of radiation-induced DNA breaks within the cell nucleus depends on radiation quality in terms of energy deposition pattern. It is generally assumed that the higher the radiation linear energy transfer (LET), the greater the DNA damage complexity. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we examined the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation kinetics of radiation-induced γ-H2AX foci, size distribution and 3D focus morphology, and the relationship between DNA damage and cellular end points (i.e., cell killing and lethal mutations) after exposure to gamma rays, protons, carbon ions and alpha particles. Our results showed that the maximum number of foci are reached 30 min postirradiation for all radiation types. However, the number of foci after 0.5 Gy of each radiation type was different with gamma rays, protons, carbon ions and alpha particles inducing 12.64 ± 0.25, 10.11 ± 0.40, 8.84 ± 0.56 and 4.80 ± 0.35 foci, respectively, which indicated a clear influence of the track structure and fluence on the numbers of foci induced after a dose of 0.5 Gy for each radiation type. The γ-H2AX foci persistence was also dependent on radiation quality, i.e., the higher the LET, the longer the foci persisted in the cell nucleus. The γ-H2AX time course was compared with cell killing and lethal mutation and the results highlighted a correlation between cellular end points and the duration of γ-H2AX foci persistence. A model was developed to evaluate the probability that multiple DSBs reside in the same gamma-ray focus and such probability was found to be negligible for doses lower than 1 Gy. Our model provides evidence that the DSBs inside complex foci, such as those induced by alpha particles, are not processed independently or with the same time constant. The combination of experimental, theoretical and simulation data supports the hypothesis of an interdependent processing of closely associated DSBs, possibly associated with a diminished correct repair capability, which affects cell killing and lethal mutation. © 2015 by Radiation Research Society.

Mancuso M.,Casaccia Research Center | Leonardi S.,Casaccia Research Center | Giardullo P.,Guglielmo Marconi University | Pasquali E.,Guglielmo Marconi University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics | Year: 2013

Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1+/-) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1+/- and Cx43 +/- mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1 +/- mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

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