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San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy

Afdhal N.H.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Giannini E.G.,University of Genoa | Tayyab G.,Postgraduate Medical Institute | Mohsin A.,Services Institute of Medical science | And 10 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Eltrombopag is an oral thrombopoietin-receptor agonist. This study evaluated the efficacy of eltrombopag for increasing platelet counts and reducing the need for platelet transfusions in patients with thrombocytopenia and chronic liver disease who are undergoing an elective invasive procedure. METHODS: We randomly assigned 292 patients with chronic liver disease of diverse causes and platelet counts of less than 50,000 per cubic millimeter to receive eltrombopag, at a dose of 75 mg daily, or placebo for 14 days before a planned elective invasive procedure that was performed within 5 days after the last dose. The primary end point was the avoidance of a platelet transfusion before, during, and up to 7 days after the procedure. A key secondary end point was the occurrence of bleeding (World Health Organization [WHO] grade 2 or higher) during this period. RESULTS: A platelet transfusion was avoided in 104 of 145 patients who received eltrombopag (72%) and in 28 of 147 who received placebo (19%) (P<0.001). No significant difference between the eltrombopag and placebo groups was observed in bleeding episodes of WHO grade 2 or higher, which were reported in 17% and 23% of patients, respectively. Thrombotic events of the portal venous system were observed in 6 patients who received eltrombopag, as compared with 1 who received placebo, resulting in the early termination of the study. The incidence and severity of other adverse events were similar in the eltrombopag and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: Eltrombopag reduced the need for platelet transfusions in patients with chronic liver disease who were undergoing elective invasive procedures, but it was associated with an increased incidence of portal-vein thrombosis, as compared with placebo. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; ELEVATE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00678587.) Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society. Source

Monteleone G.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Neurath M.F.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Ardizzone S.,cco University Hospital | Di Sabatino A.,University of Pavia | And 18 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2015

Background Crohn's disease-related inflammation is characterized by reduced activity of the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) due to high levels of SMAD7, an inhibitor of TGF-β1 signaling. Preclinical studies and a phase 1 study have shown that an oral SMAD7 antisense oligonucleotide, mongersen, targets ileal and colonic SMAD7. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, we evaluated the efficacy of mongersen for the treatment of persons with active Crohn's disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 10, 40, or 160 mg of mongersen or placebo per day for 2 weeks. The primary outcomes were clinical remission at day 15, defined as a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) score of less than 150, with maintenance of remission for at least 2 weeks, and the safety of mongersen treatment. A secondary outcome was clinical response (defined as a reduction of 100 points or more in the CDAI score) at day 28. Results The proportions of patients who reached the primary end point were 55% and 65% for the 40-mg and 160-mg mongersen groups, respectively, as compared with 10% for the placebo group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the percentage of participants reaching clinical remission between the 10-mg group (12%) and the placebo group. The rate of clinical response was significantly greater among patients receiving 10 mg (37%), 40 mg (58%), or 160 mg (72%) of mongersen than among those receiving placebo (17%) (P = 0.04, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). Most adverse events were related to complications and symptoms of Crohn's disease. Conclusions We found that study participants with Crohn's disease who received mongersen had significantly higher rates of remission and clinical response than those who received placebo. © 2015 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Barbara G.,University of Bologna | Cremon C.,University of Bologna | Annese V.,University of Florence | Basilisco G.,Gastroenterology Unit | And 18 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2016

Objective: Low-grade intestinal inflammation plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. In this trial, we aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of mesalazine in patients with IBS. Design: We conducted a phase 3, multicentre, tertiary setting, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with Rome III confirmed IBS. Patients were randomly assigned to either mesalazine, 800 mg, or placebo, three times daily for 12 weeks, and were followed for additional 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was satisfactory relief of abdominal pain/discomfort for at least half of the weeks of the treatment period. The key secondary endpoint was satisfactory relief of overall IBS symptoms. Supportive analyses were also performed classifying as responders patients with a percentage of affirmative answers of at least 75% or >75% of time. Results: A total of 185 patients with IBS were enrolled from 21 centres. For the primary endpoint, the responder patients were 68.6% in the mesalazine group versus 67.4% in the placebo group (p=0.870; 95% CI -12.8 to 15.1). In explorative analyses, with the 75% rule or >75% rule, the percentage of responders was greater in the mesalazine group with a difference over placebo of 11.6% (p=0.115; 95% CI -2.7% to 26.0%) and 5.9% (p=0.404; 95% CI -7.8% to 19.4%), respectively, although these differences were not significant. For the key secondary endpoint, overall symptoms improved in the mesalazine group and reached a significant difference of 15.1% versus placebo (p=0.032; 95% CI 1.5% to 28.7%) with the >75% rule. Conclusions: Mesalazine treatment was not superior than placebo on the study primary endpoint. However, a subgroup of patients with IBS showed a sustained therapy response and benefits from a mesalazine therapy. Trial registration number: ClincialTrials.gov number, NCT00626288. © 2016, BMJ. All rights reserved. Source

Mangia A.,Casa Sollievo Sofferenza Hospital | Dalgard O.,Rikshospitalet | Minerva N.,Hospital Canosa | Verbaan H.,University Hospital Malmoe | And 8 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

The optimal dose of ribavirin to be used in combination with Peg-IFN in patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3 undergoing short treatment has not been established. Aim To explore the relationship between starting ribavirin doses, expressed as mg/kg body weight and both rapid viral response at treatment week 4 (RVR) and sustained virological response (SVR) in patients treated for 12-14 weeks with peg-interferon α-2b and ribavirin. Methods A post hoc analysis of data collected from two multicenter clinical trials was performed. Multiple regression analyses were employed to identify independent baseline and on-treatment predictors of RVR and SVR. For each dose of ribavirin, the empirical estimated probability of response was computed and the continuous exposure index was dichotomized by using a recursive partitioning and amalgamation method. Results A nonlinear relationship was ascertained between ribavirin dose and RVR, but not SVR. A dose of 15.2 mg/kg was selected as the best splitting value for discriminating RVR vs. non-RVR. Regression analysis identified low baseline viraemia, genotype 2 and high ribavirin dose as independent prognostic factors for RVR. The likelihood of an SVR was not correlated with baseline ribavirin dose, but was independently predicted by adherence to the full dose throughout treatment and normal platelet counts. Conclusions Starting high ribavirin doses appears capable of increasing the rate of RVR in patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3 undergoing short treatment. Maintenance of the full planned dose throughout treatment is essential for achieving optimal SVR rates. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Andriulli A.,Casa Sollievo Sofferenza Hospital | Botteri E.,Italian National Cancer Institute | Almasio P.L.,University of Palermo | Vantini I.,University of Verona | And 2 more authors.
Pancreas | Year: 2010

Objectives: To assess the evidence for tobacco smoking as a risk factor for the causation of chronic pancreatitis. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis with random-effects models to estimate pooled relative risks (RRs) of chronic pancreatitis for current, former, and ever smokers, in comparison to never smokers. We also performed dose-response, heterogeneity, publication bias, and sensitivity analyses. Results: Ten case-control studies and 2 cohort studies that evaluated, overall, 1705 patients with chronic pancreatitis satisfied the inclusion criteria. When contrasted to never smokers, the pooled risk estimates for current smokers was 2.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-4.2) overall and 2.5 (95% CI, 1.3-4.6) when data were adjusted for alcohol consumption. A dose-response effect of tobacco use on the risk was ascertained: the RR for subjects smoking less than 1 pack per day was 2.4 (95% CI, 0.9-6.6) and increased to 3.3 (95% CI, 1.4-7.9) in those smoking 1 or more packs per day. The risk diminished significantly after smoking cessation, as the RR estimate for former smokers dropped to a value of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Conclusions: Tobacco smoking may enhance the risk of developing chronic pancreatitis. Recommendation for smoking cessation, besides alcohol abstinence, should be incorporated in the management of patients with chronic pancreatitis. © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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