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Recent breakthrough on identification and characterization of PYR/PYLs as ABA receptors enables us to better understand the perception, signaling and transportation of ABA in plant. Based on publicly available microarray data, transcriptional levels of ABA signaling pathway core components were compared after stress and phytohormone treatments, including these involved in ABA metabolism, signal transduction, and catabolism. The results showed that both abiotic and biotic stress treatments increased the expression levels of ABA key metabolism and catabolism transcripts. The expression levels of PYR/PYLs were down-regulated and these of PP2Cs and ABFs were uniformly up-regulated after exogenous ABA application and under stress conditions. The results indicated that the increased ratio of PP2Cs:PYR/PYLs might be required for activation of the downstream ABA signal pathway under both abiotic and biotic stress conditions. We concluded that abiotic and biotic stress responses shared ABA signal pathway in Arabidopsis. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Guo M.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Huang B.X.,U.S. National Institutes of Health
Proteomics | Year: 2013

Reversible phosphorylation, tightly controlled by protein kinases and phosphatases, plays a central role in mediating biological processes, such as protein-protein interactions, subcellular translocation, and activation of cellular enzymes. MS-based phosphoproteomics has now allowed the detection and quantification of tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites from a typical biological sample in a single experiment, which has posed new challenges in functional analysis of each and every phosphorylation site on specific signaling phosphoproteins of interest. In this article, we review recent advances in the functional analysis of targeted phosphorylation carried out by various chemical and biological approaches in combination with the MS-based phosphoproteomics. This review focuses on three types of strategies, including forward functional analysis, defined for the result-driven phosphoproteomics efforts in determining the substrates of a specific protein kinase; reverse functional analysis, defined for tracking the kinase(s) for specific phosphosite(s) derived from the discovery-driven phosphoproteomics efforts; and MS-based analysis on the structure-function relationship of phosphoproteins. It is expected that this review will provide a state-of-the-art overview of functional analysis of site-specific phosphorylation and explore new perspectives and outline future challenges. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhang Q.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Lou Z.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2011

The Three Gorges Dam (TGD) is by far the world's largest hydroelectric scheme. Due to its unprecedented magnitude, the TGD has been controversial ever since it was proposed in the early 20th century and building commenced in 1993. Recent problems, including geological disasters (e.g., landslides) in the uplands and algal blooms in the aquatic environment since the reservoir's partial filling to 156. m in 2006, suggest that the environmental challenge has never been greater than now. The environmental deterioration might be further intensified when the reservoir reaches its final water level of 175. m. Solving the environmental challenges will be essential for the sustainable development of the Three Gorges Reservoir region (TGRR), and environmental sustainability in the TGRR is a high priority for the nation considering its critical location in the Yangtze Basin, which contributes 40% of China's GDP. This article reviews primary environmental assessments for biodiversity conservation, the water environment, water level fluctuation zone, and the uplands after the partial filling in the reservoir region. It also discusses the success of mitigation efforts to date. Although there are successes in mitigation particularly in conservation of endangered plants and fishes, it seems likely that environmental conditions in the TGRR could only get worse in the short term. Building a partnership among the TGD stakeholders, including local residents, governments, and international communities is necessary to meet the mounting environmental challenge in the TGRR and beyond. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Chan Z.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2012

Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere (CA), and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism, and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well-investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens, and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data. © 2013 Chan.

Wei X.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Jiang M.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden
New Phytologist | Year: 2012

• This study aimed to reveal species-genetic diversity correlations (SGDCs) and their underlying mechanisms in natural and disturbed forests. • A community survey and molecular analyses were carried out to compare species diversity (SD), the genetic diversity of the dominant tree species Euptelea pleiospermum (GD), the altitudinal patterns of SD and GD, SGDC, genetic differentiation (F ST), community divergence (F ST-C), effective population size (N e), and recent migration rate between mountain riparian forests along the Yandu (natural) and Nan (disturbed) rivers. • In natural forests, both SD and GD showed a unimodal altitudinal pattern and GD was positively correlated with SD, whereas a unimodal pattern and positive SGDC were not found in the disturbed forests. SD and F ST at the natural sites were higher than those at the disturbed sites. However, there were no significant differences in GD, F ST-C, N e or recent migration rate between the natural and disturbed sites. • A correlation between the patterns of SD and GD along a geographical gradient (e.g. altitude) is an important driver of positive SGDC. The absence of positive SGDC in the disturbed forests may result from reduced SD but unaffected GD, indicating nonparallel changes in SD and GD. This study furthermore cautions against generalizations about changes in SD and GD following disturbance. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

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