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CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology and Guangdong University of Technology | Date: 2015-02-05

An in-situ and on-line acoustic measuring system for natural gas flux at the hydrocarbon seeps at a seafloor includes a seepage tent and a flow measuring channel. The flow measuring channel includes a lower bubble breaking channel, an ultrasonic transducer measuring channel and an upper bubble breaking channel. The lower bubble breaking channel communicates with the seepage tent provided with bubble breaking grids. Lower and upper bubble breaking devices, arranged in a bubble rising direction, are respectively mounted in the lower and upper bubble breaking channels. One side of the ultrasonic transducer measuring channel is fixedly connected with an acoustic wave demultiplexer, and the other side is fixedly connected with flat receiving transducers receiving transmitting acoustic waves generated by an acoustic wave branching unit. Acoustic wave probes, also used for receiving the transmitting acoustic waves generated by the acoustic wave demultiplexer, are arranged in the ultrasonic transducer measuring channel.

Du Y.,CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology | Cai W.,CSIRO | Wu Y.,CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013

The tropical Indian Ocean dipole/zonal mode (IOD) is phase locked with the austral winter and spring seasons. This study describes three types of the IOD in terms of their peak time and duration. In particular, the authors focus on a new type that develops in May-June and matures in July-August, which is distinctively different from the canonical IOD, which may develop later and peak in September-November or persist from June to November. Such "unseasonable" IOD events are only observed since the mid-1970s, a period after which the tropical Indian Ocean has a closer relationship with the Pacific Ocean. The unseasonable IOD is an intrinsic mode of the Indian Ocean and occurs without an ensuing El Nĩo. A change in winds along the equator is identified as a major forcing. The wind change is in turn related to a weakening Walker circulation in the Indian Ocean sector in austral winter, which is in part forced by the rapid Indian Ocean warming. Thus, although the occurrence of the unseasonable IOD may be partially influenced by oceanic variability, the authors' results suggest an influence from the Indian Ocean warming. This suggestion, however, awaits further investigation using fully coupled climate models. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Liu W.G.,CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
Fish & shellfish immunology | Year: 2013

Cytokine-induced suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family acts as a negative regulator of cytokine receptor signaling to control excessive cytokine effects and inhibit a variety of signal transduction pathways, particularly the Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. In present study, SOCS-2 homolog (PfSOCS-2) from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata was cloned and its gene has no intron. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that PfSOCS-2 was clustered with other mollusk SOCS-2. LPS or polyI:C challenge and gene expression analysis revealed that PfSOCS-2 involved the innate immune response against bacterial and viral infections and that induction of PfSOCS-2 was varied with the different challenge stimulations. Furthermore, Dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that PfSOCS-2 involved in the regulation of vertebrate target genes containing the IFN-stimulated response element or NF-κB binding site in vitro. These results indicated that SOCS-2 from P. fucata plays a regulatory role against the stimulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yu K.F.,CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
Science China Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

This paper reviews both the recent and longer-term (Holocene) ecological history of coral reefs in the South China Sea (SCS). (1) Local ecological monitoring since the 1960s shows that the coral reefs in the South China Sea have declined dramatically, reflecting the rapid decrease of living coral cover and the great loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae. Collectively, this has led to a significant decrease of annual CaCO 3 production. Heavy anthropogenic activities and global warming are recognized as major triggers of the observed coral reef degradation. Observations show that the modern coral reefs in the SCS are a source of atmospheric CO 2 in summer. (2) Coral reefs of the SCS have been widely used to reveal longer-term environmental variations, including Holocene high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) and abrupt climate events, millennial-scale El Niño variations, millennial- and centennial-scale sea level oscillations, strong and cyclic storm activities, East Asian monsoon intensities, variation in seawater pH, and recent seawater pollution. (3) Coral reefs of the southern SCS have experienced repeated episodes of bleaching over the last 200 years due to high SST and intense El Niño events; coral reefs of the northern SCS suffered high levels of mortality during several abrupt winter cold-water bleaching events during the middle Holocene warm period. On average, recovery after the middle Holocene cold-bleaching took 20-30 years; recovery following other middle Holocene environmental stresses took approximately 10-20 years. Such findings have significantly contributed to the understanding of the present ecological pressures faced by the coral reefs in the SCS, the histories of Holocene climate/environment changes, and the long-term models of coral reef responses to various past environmental changes. © 2012 Science China Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Traditionally Cocholodinium and Gymnodinium sensu lato clade are distinguished based on the cingulum turn number, which has been increasingly recognized to be inadequate for Gymnodiniales genus classification. This has been improved by the combination of the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny, which has led to the erection of several new genera (Takayama, Akashiwo, Karenia, and Karlodinium). Taking the apical groove characteristics and molecular phylogeny combined approach, we reexamined the historically taxonomically uncertain species Cochlodinium geminatum that formed massive blooms in Pearl River Estuary, China, in recent years. Samples were collected from a bloom in 2011 for morphological, characteristic pigment, and molecular analyses. We found that the cingulum in this species wraps around the cell body about 1.2 turns on average but can appear under the light microscopy to be >1.5 turns after the cells have been preserved. The shape of its apical groove, however, was stably an open-ended anticlockwise loop of kidney bean shape, similar to that of Polykrikos. Furthermore, the molecular phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA-ITS-28S rRNA gene cistron we obtained in this study also consistently placed this species closest to Polykrikos within the Gymnodinium sensu stricto clade and set it far separated from the clade of Cochlodinium. These results suggest that this species should be transferred to Polykrikos as Polykrikos geminatum. Our results reiterate the need to use the combination of apical groove morphology and molecular phylogeny for the classification of species within the genus of Cochlodinium and other Gymnodiniales lineages.

Cai J.-X.,CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
Journal of Geodynamics | Year: 2013

Ductile shear structure of the Guanging-Bobai fault belt in the SW part of the Qin-Hang belt, South China, has been investigated and interpreted in terms of radiometric dating data. A series of ductile shear zones occurs within the fault belt with deformation and metamorphic features indicative of formation under medium temperature and pressure conditions. The foliation such formed is steeply dipping and bears a gently plunging lineation, which along with the dextral kinematic indicators determines a broad NE-SW-trending dextral strike-slip regime responsible for the development of these shear zones. Field overprinting relationships indicate that this dextral shear is pre-dated by the Indosinian (P2-T) NNE-verging thrusting and post-dated by the Yanshanian (J2-K2) SE-verging thrusting, and thus occurred during a transitional period between the two orogenies. 40Ar-39Ar radiometric dating on muscovite from mylonites further constrains timing of the dextral shear to the Early Jurassic (187-193Ma). Based on the coeval tectonic framework of eastern Asia, we propose here that the dextral strike-slip system was initiated by the far-field oblique stress field from the incipient subduction of the Izanagi oceanic plate. An offset continental margin of the South China plate may have been created in response to this transcurrent movement along the fault belt, dissecting and displacing not only a relict Caledonian foreland basin, but also an Indosinian magmatic belt. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology | Date: 2013-12-30

The invention discloses a new strepsesquitriol A, a preparation method thereof and an application thereof. Strepsesquitriol A, a structure as shown in Formula (I), is a compound having a new skeleton and strongly inhibiting the formation of LPS-induced TNF but showing no cytotoxic activity, so it can be used for the preparation of anti-inflammatory drug or act as a precursor of anti-inflammatory drugs, for the treatment of multiple inflammations. Therefore, the invention provides a new candidate compound for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs, and is of great significance for developing Chinese marine drug resources.

CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology | Date: 2011-09-01

The invention discloses a Pseudonocardia sp. and a method for preparing Deoxynyboquinone by utilizing the same. Pseudonocardia sp. SCSIO 01299 was collected in China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCC) (Address: Wuhan University, Wuhan City, China) with the collection number of CCTCC NO: M 2011255 on Jul. 18, 2011. The Pseudonocardia sp. SCSIO 01299 can produce antibiotic Deoxynyboquinone, so that the Pseudonocardia sp. SCSIO 01299 can be utilized for preparing Deoxynyboquinone and a new way is provided for producing antibiotic Deoxynyboquinone with anti-tumor activity.

CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology | Date: 2013-01-24

Provided herein is a bee venom composition with effects of protecting and beautifying lips, comprising cosmetic matrix components for use on lips and bee venom. The bee venom is prepared by using the following method: crude bee venom is dissolved with water, before ultrafiltrated using an ultrafiltration membrane with the molecular weight cutoff 10000 Da, and then the resulting filtrate is freeze-dried to obtain the bee venom.

CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology | Date: 2012-06-18

The invention discloses marine Streptomyces sp., a Pyranosesquiterpene compound, as well as a preparation method and uses thereof. Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 01689 was collected in China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCC) (Address: Wuhan University, Wuhan City, China) with the collection number of CCTCC NO: M 2011257 on Jul. 18, 2011. The Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 01689 can produce the Pyranosesquiterpene compound with better anti-Escherichia coli activity and anti-Artemia activity, as well as Cyclo(D)-Pro-(D)-Ile, Cyclo(D)-Pro-(D)-Leu and Cyclo(D)-trans-4-OH-Pro-(D)-Phe with better anti-Vibrio anguillarum activity and anti-Artemia activity, thereby providing a new way for preparing the Cyclo(D)-Pro-(D)-Ile, the Cyclo(D)-Pro-(D)-Leu and the Cyclo(D)-trans-4-OH-Pro-(D)-Phe. The Pyranosesquiterpene compound can be used for preparing anti-Escherichia coli medicaments and anti-Artemia medicaments, as well as preparing condiments as a condiment precursor compound.

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