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Duan Y.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Duan Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Liu P.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Li J.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Cell Stress and Chaperones | Year: 2014

Methyl farnesoate (MF), an analogue of the insect juvenile hormone III, is believed to play important roles in the regulation of the growth and reproductive development in crustaceans. Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) is the key enzyme in the juvenile hormone biosynthetic pathway, involved in the conversion of farnesoic acid (FA) to MF in the final step of MF synthesis. In this study, a FAMeT cDNA (named EcFAMeT) was cloned from the hemocytes of ridgetail white prawn Exopalaemon carinicauda by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods. The full-length cDNA of EcFAMeT was 1,620 bp, including contains a 5-untranslated region (UTR) of 75 bp, 3-UTR of 714 bp with a poly (A) tail, an open reading frame (ORF) of 831 bp, encoding a 276-amino-acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 31.57 kDa and estimated isoelectric point of 4.67. BLAST analysis revealed that amino acids of EcFAMeT shared high identity (75-90 %) with that of other crustaceans. Two conserved signatures domains of Methyltransf-FA superfamily were also identified in EcFAMeT. Real time quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that EcFAMeT could be detected in all the tested tissues and strongly expressed in hepatopancreas and ovary of E. carinicauda. After Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV challenge, EcFAMeT transcripts both in hemocytes and hepatopancreas increased significantly in the first 3 h, respectively. The results indicated that EcFAMeT might be associated with the immune defenses to V. anguillarum and WSSV in E. carinicauda. © 2013 The Author(s).

Xu S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen Z.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Li S.,Sun Yat Sen University | He P.,Shanghai Ocean University
Estuaries and Coasts | Year: 2011

Using a large-scale enclosed sea area in northern Hangzhou Bay as a case study, the trophic interactions, energy flows, and ecosystem properties of a coastal artificial ecosystem were analyzed by ecotrophic modeling using Ecopath with Ecosim software (EwE, 5.1 version). The model consists of 13 functional groups: piscivorous fish, benthic-feeding fish, zooplanktivorous fish, herbivorous fish, crabs, shrimp, mollusca, infauna, carnivorous zooplankton, herbivorous zooplankton, macrophytes, phytoplankton, and detritus. Input information for the model was gathered from published and unpublished reports and from our own estimates during the period 2006-2007. Results show that the food web in the enclosed sea area was dominated by a detritus pathway. The trophic levels of the groups varied from 1.00 for primary producers and detritus to 3.90 for piscivorous fish in the coastal artificial system. Using networkanalysis, the system network was mapped into a linear food chain, and five discrete trophic levels were found with a mean transfer efficiency of 9.8% from detritus and 9.4% from primary producer within the ecosystem. The geometric mean of the trophic transfer efficiencies was 9.6%. Detritus contributed 57% of the total energy flux, and the other 43% came from primary producers. The ecosystem maturity indices-total primary production/total respiration, Finn's cycling index, and ascendancy-were 2.56, 25.0%, and 31.0%, respectively, showing that the coastal artificial system is at developmental stage according to Odum's theory of ecosystem development. Generally, this is the first trophic model of a large-scale artificial sea enclosure in China and provides some useful insights into the structure and functioning of the system. © 2010 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

Yang J.-X.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Yang J.-X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Liu Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Ye Z.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University
Pedosphere | Year: 2012

A rhizobox experiment was conducted to compare iron (Fe) oxidation and changes of pH, redox potential (Eh) and fractions of zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of four emergent-rooted wetland plants (Echinodorus macrophyllus, Eleocharis geniculata, Hydrocotyle vulgaris and Veronica serpyllifolia) with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) from roots. The results indicated that all these wetland plants decreased pH and concentration of Fe(II) but increased the Eh in the rhizosphere soils. Pb and Zn were transformed from unstable fractions to more stable fractions in the rhizosphere soils, so decreasing their potential metal mobility factors (MF). Among the four plants, E. macrophyllus, with the highest ROL and root biomass, possessed the greatest ability in formation of Fe plaque and in the reduction of heavy metal MFs in the rhizosphere soil. Wetland plants, with higher ROLs and root biomass, may thus be effective in decreasing potential long-term heavy metal bioavailabilities. © 2012 Soil Science Society of China.

Zhang D.L.,Jimei University | Han F.,Jimei University | Yu D.H.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Xiao S.J.,Jimei University | And 3 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2015

Neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) was recently identified in humans as an important immune factor responding to the challenge of virus, LPS or cytokine. Its role in fish immune defense and whether it is involved in anti-parasite immunity have not been proven yet. In this report, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of Nrdp1 in the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (LcNrdp1) were identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LcNrdp1 was 1248bp, including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 32bp, a 3' UTR of 259bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 937bp, encoding a polypeptide of 318 amino acid residues. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of LcNrdp1 was composed of 2635 nucleotides, including four exons and three introns. The putative LcNrdp1 protein had no signal peptide sequence and contained a characteristic Nrdp1 consensus motif C3HC3D ring finger and a Coiled-coil domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Nrdp1 in fish was closer with that in other vertebrates (79%-90% amino acid identity) than in invertebrates and bacteria (27%-65%). In fishes, Nrdp1 in large yellow croaker was closer with that in Takifugu rubripes. The expression profile showed that LcNrdp1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, especially highly expressed in brain, muscle and kidney. Post-infection (PI) with Cryptocaryon irritans, an increased expression of LcNrdp1 was induced in infection sites (skin and gill), whereas in immune organs, the expression of LcNrdp1 was up-regulated in spleen (except the 1st d and 10th d PI) but suppressed in head kidney. These results suggested that LcNrdp1 might play an important immune role in the finfish L. crocea in the defense against the parasite C. irritans. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ye Y.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Cochrane K.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Qiu Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Fisheries Research | Year: 2011

The tenets of ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) now occupy centre stage in our efforts to maintain the sustainability of fisheries and rebuild marine ecosystems. The paper discusses how an EAF can be adopted for data limited fisheries and uses the northern South China Sea fishery as an example to demonstrate the selection and use of indicators for determining the states of the fishery and its relevant ecosystem to provide advice on management. Implementing EAF management requires indicators and models that address the impact of fishing across entire ecological communities and determine management actions to be taken to achieve the preset objectives according to decision rules. Data limited fisheries necessarily have limited resources for data collection and scientific studies and therefore could not support complex models. To overcome the data limitation and absence of modelling support, simple indicators have to be used to assess the current state and monitor changes of the fishery and its ecosystem. Such indicators should: (1) be observable and understandable by all stakeholders, (2) be based on easily obtainable and reliable data, (3) adequately reflect the condition of the resource, and (4) have associated reference values and responsive management measures. The paper also reviews the recent development and use of indicators and harvest strategies in both conventional and EAF management to better understand the differences and to shed light on the challenges of EAF, in particular for data limited fisheries. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Chen Z.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Qiu Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Xu S.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2011

Mass-balance models (Ecopath) of the ecosystem before and after collapse (1959-1961 and 1997-1999) of fish stocks were developed with Ecopath software to compare the differences in ecosystem structure, functioning and ecosystem properties of the Beibu Gulf. The model includes 20 functional groups consisting of commercial important fish groups and other ecologically important groups in the ecosystem such as zooplankton, phytoplankton, and detritus. Results indicated that biomass and catches of the system have changed drastically between the 1960s and 1990s, especially for the high trophic levels (TL). The biomass of level V in the early 1960s was 32 times higher than that of the late 1990s, however, the biomass of level I and II in the 1990s was higher than the 1960s. Despite the higher catches in the 1990s, fishing was ecologically less expensive during the 1990s than 1960s due to small fish catches were large. Mean transfer efficiency decreased from for 10.2% in the 1960s to 9.1% in the 1990s periods. According to the summary statistics, the parameters of net system production (NPS) and total primary production to total respiration ratio were increased from 1.013 in the 1960s to 2.184 in the 1990s, however, the connectance index (CI), system omnivore index, Finn's cycling index and mean path length decreased from the 1960s to the 1990s. The overhead (O) was higher in the 1990s model while the ascendancy (A) decreased nearly 10% in the 1960s. The 'Keystoneness' result indicate that zooplankton was identified as keystone species in 1960s, however, the elasmobranches was keystone species in the late 1990s. The average trophic level of the fishery decreased from 3.32 in the 1960s to 2.98 in the 1990s, and exhibits classic symptoms of " fishing down the food web" All the indices of the system attributes suggests that the Beibu Gulf ecosystem in 1960s was found to be more mature than in the 1990s due to the collapse of demersal ecosystem, and the ecosystem changed from being dominated by long-lived, high trophic level groundfish dominated system toward a system with small-size and low-value species over fifty years. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Qiu Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2015

Forcing factors and mechanisms underlying multidecadal variability in the production of the world's major fish stocks are one of the great mysteries of the oceans. The Japanese and California sardine are species that exhibit the regime shifts. It is shown in the present work that during two periods of frequent Asian dust events over the last 100. years, sardines on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean only flourished under a dust-active regime. The earlier such regime that peaked in the 1930s was strong, and it brought synchronous changes in the two species that were linked to the frequency of Asian dust events. However, there is an apparent mismatch in the rise and fall of abundance between the two species in the current dust-active regime. The massive increase in Japanese sardine stock in the 1970s was related to high levels of ocean precipitation and strong winter mixing, whereas the stock collapse since 1988 has been attributed to diminished winter mixing. High levels of ocean precipitation in the western North Pacific effectively cause wet deposition of Asian dust and enhance Japanese sardine stock, whereas it reduces dust flux that can be transported to the eastern North Pacific, delaying the increase of California sardine stock. Analysis further indicates that productivity of Japanese sardine stock is jointly controlled by wet deposition of Asian dust and winter mixing, which supplies macronutrients from depth. California sardine productivity is inversely related to precipitation in the western North Pacific and is positively affected by precipitation off western North America. This indicates that Asian dust influx dominates productivity of the species because of iron-limited ocean productivity in the California sardine ranges. The analysis suggests that dust regime shifts influence shifts in sardine productivity regimes and that iron input from Asian dust during trans-Pacific transport is directly responsible. It appears that in addition to enhancing phytoplankton growth and carbon sinks, atmospheric iron deposition can regulate the production of living ocean resources, which is an extension of Martin's iron hypothesis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang D.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Ma J.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Jiang S.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2014

Serine proteinase inhibitors represent an expanding superfamily of endogenous inhibitors that are regulate proteolytic events and involved in a variety of physiological and immunological processes. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (poKSPI) was identified and characterized from pearl oyster Pinctada fucata based on expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis. The full-length cDNA was 737 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) 660 bp encoding a 219 amino acid protein a theoretical molecular weight (Mw) of 23.3 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.40. A putative signal peptide of 19 amino acid residues and five tandem Kazal domains were identified. Four of the Kazal domains had the highly conserved motif sequences with six cysteine residues responsible for the formation of disulfide bridges. The deduced amino acid sequence of the poKSPI shared high homology with KSPIs from Hirudo medicinalis. The poKSPI mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA was the highest in mantle and gonad, while the lowest in haemocyte and intestine. After LPS challenge, the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland was significantly up-regulated at 4 h post-challenge and reached the peak at 12 h post-challenge, which was 4.23-fold higher than control group; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was also significantly up-regulated at 8 and 12 h post-challenge, which were 4.48 and 2.26-fold higher than control group. After Vibrio alginolyticus challenge, the expression levels of the poKSPI mRNA in digestive gland were significantly up-regulated at 8, 12, 48 and 72 h post-challenge, which were 1.70, 1.79, 3.89 and 5.69-fold higher than control group, respectively; the expression level of the poKSPI mRNA in gill was significantly up-regulated at 24 h post-challenge, which was 5.30-fold higher than control group. The recombinant poKSPI protein could inhibit chymotrypsin and trypsin activities in dose-dependent manner, when the ratios of rpoKSPI to chymotrypsin and trypsin were 36:1 and 72:1, respectively, the proteinase activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin could be almost completely inhibited, but the rpoKSPI could not inhibit subtilisin. © 2013.

Ou Y.J.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2013

Distribution and ultrastructural changes in the mitochondrion-rich cells in gills of artificial selected Trachinotus ovatus under different salinities (5, 20, and 30) were examined by light and transmission electron micrograph. Results indicated that the mitochondrion-rich cells were mainly present on the base of the gill filaments and branchial leaflets, and the volume and quantity of mitochondrion-rich cells increased with salinity. All three salinity groups had apical crypts, which were constituted by the mitochondrion-rich cells, pavement cells and accessory cells. Mitochondrion-rich cells in the salinity 5 group had large apical membranes with developed microridges and shallow apical crypts. Apical crypts in the salinity 20 and 30 groups had small apical membranes and undeveloped microridges, and were embolic obviously. Cytoplasm of mitochondrion-rich cells in the salinity 5 and 30 groups developed tubular systems and abundant cristae mitochondria. The tubular system of the salinity 20 group was non-spatially constant and had loose structure. Part of the tubular system contracted into a pearl bubble structure and shared rough endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondrion-rich cells in Trachinotus ovatus under salinities 5 and 20 appeared both seawater-type's and freshwater-type's features, and those in salinity 30 had typical characteristics as seawater-type MR cells. Structural changes of mitochondrion-rich cells were suited to different osmotic pressure.

Qiu Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Lin Z.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Wang Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2010

To understand the responses of fish production to both fishing pressure and climate variability in the northern South China Sea (NSCS), catch time series are partitioned into interannual trends and variations. These are separately related to growth in fishing effort and physical variables. Catches of the fishery underwent dome-shaped trends corresponding to a monotonic growth in fishing effort, first in the inshore and then in the offshore demersal fishes, while total catch and catches of the low-trophic species showed a rising trend until 1990, and eventually experienced a decline under high fishing pressure. After accounting for the trends from the growth in fishing pressure, variations in catches were lag correlated with land precipitation, monsoon wind speeds, and a proposed index of tropical cyclone influence. The linkage suggests that river runoff, monsoon circulation and tropical cyclone impacts are the physical forcing factors dominating the catch variations, and the effects are largely through controlling the nutrient supply for biological production. Runoff provides nutrients to the inshore waters, while monsoons and tropical cyclones control the distribution and availability of nutrients. The winter monsoon increases primary production and hence fish production by offshore diffusion of the nitrogen-rich riverine water masses and by enhancing vertical mixing. In contrast, the summer monsoon reduces availability of nutrients for biological production by confining the distribution of the riverine water masses and strengthening water column stratification. Tropical cyclones are a strong forcing factor that has a positive effect on production of fishes. Tropical cyclones mobilize nutrient elements and enhance biological production by increasing water circulation, wind mixing and upwelling, and by inducing heavy rainfall and territory runoff. Based on the suggested physical forcing factors and their controlling mechanisms, the analysis predicts that increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs and future climate changes are likely to result in an increase in fish production in the NSCS; this may be associated with even larger interannual and interdecadal fluctuations in fish production. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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