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Xu S.,Sun Yat Sen University | Chen Z.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Li S.,Sun Yat Sen University | He P.,Shanghai Ocean University
Estuaries and Coasts | Year: 2011

Using a large-scale enclosed sea area in northern Hangzhou Bay as a case study, the trophic interactions, energy flows, and ecosystem properties of a coastal artificial ecosystem were analyzed by ecotrophic modeling using Ecopath with Ecosim software (EwE, 5.1 version). The model consists of 13 functional groups: piscivorous fish, benthic-feeding fish, zooplanktivorous fish, herbivorous fish, crabs, shrimp, mollusca, infauna, carnivorous zooplankton, herbivorous zooplankton, macrophytes, phytoplankton, and detritus. Input information for the model was gathered from published and unpublished reports and from our own estimates during the period 2006-2007. Results show that the food web in the enclosed sea area was dominated by a detritus pathway. The trophic levels of the groups varied from 1.00 for primary producers and detritus to 3.90 for piscivorous fish in the coastal artificial system. Using networkanalysis, the system network was mapped into a linear food chain, and five discrete trophic levels were found with a mean transfer efficiency of 9.8% from detritus and 9.4% from primary producer within the ecosystem. The geometric mean of the trophic transfer efficiencies was 9.6%. Detritus contributed 57% of the total energy flux, and the other 43% came from primary producers. The ecosystem maturity indices-total primary production/total respiration, Finn's cycling index, and ascendancy-were 2.56, 25.0%, and 31.0%, respectively, showing that the coastal artificial system is at developmental stage according to Odum's theory of ecosystem development. Generally, this is the first trophic model of a large-scale artificial sea enclosure in China and provides some useful insights into the structure and functioning of the system. © 2010 Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation.

Ye Y.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Cochrane K.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Qiu Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Fisheries Research | Year: 2011

The tenets of ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) now occupy centre stage in our efforts to maintain the sustainability of fisheries and rebuild marine ecosystems. The paper discusses how an EAF can be adopted for data limited fisheries and uses the northern South China Sea fishery as an example to demonstrate the selection and use of indicators for determining the states of the fishery and its relevant ecosystem to provide advice on management. Implementing EAF management requires indicators and models that address the impact of fishing across entire ecological communities and determine management actions to be taken to achieve the preset objectives according to decision rules. Data limited fisheries necessarily have limited resources for data collection and scientific studies and therefore could not support complex models. To overcome the data limitation and absence of modelling support, simple indicators have to be used to assess the current state and monitor changes of the fishery and its ecosystem. Such indicators should: (1) be observable and understandable by all stakeholders, (2) be based on easily obtainable and reliable data, (3) adequately reflect the condition of the resource, and (4) have associated reference values and responsive management measures. The paper also reviews the recent development and use of indicators and harvest strategies in both conventional and EAF management to better understand the differences and to shed light on the challenges of EAF, in particular for data limited fisheries. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Yang J.-X.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Yang J.-X.,Sun Yat Sen University | Liu Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Ye Z.-H.,Sun Yat Sen University
Pedosphere | Year: 2012

A rhizobox experiment was conducted to compare iron (Fe) oxidation and changes of pH, redox potential (Eh) and fractions of zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of four emergent-rooted wetland plants (Echinodorus macrophyllus, Eleocharis geniculata, Hydrocotyle vulgaris and Veronica serpyllifolia) with different radial oxygen loss (ROL) from roots. The results indicated that all these wetland plants decreased pH and concentration of Fe(II) but increased the Eh in the rhizosphere soils. Pb and Zn were transformed from unstable fractions to more stable fractions in the rhizosphere soils, so decreasing their potential metal mobility factors (MF). Among the four plants, E. macrophyllus, with the highest ROL and root biomass, possessed the greatest ability in formation of Fe plaque and in the reduction of heavy metal MFs in the rhizosphere soil. Wetland plants, with higher ROLs and root biomass, may thus be effective in decreasing potential long-term heavy metal bioavailabilities. © 2012 Soil Science Society of China.

Qiu Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Progress in Oceanography | Year: 2015

Forcing factors and mechanisms underlying multidecadal variability in the production of the world's major fish stocks are one of the great mysteries of the oceans. The Japanese and California sardine are species that exhibit the regime shifts. It is shown in the present work that during two periods of frequent Asian dust events over the last 100. years, sardines on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean only flourished under a dust-active regime. The earlier such regime that peaked in the 1930s was strong, and it brought synchronous changes in the two species that were linked to the frequency of Asian dust events. However, there is an apparent mismatch in the rise and fall of abundance between the two species in the current dust-active regime. The massive increase in Japanese sardine stock in the 1970s was related to high levels of ocean precipitation and strong winter mixing, whereas the stock collapse since 1988 has been attributed to diminished winter mixing. High levels of ocean precipitation in the western North Pacific effectively cause wet deposition of Asian dust and enhance Japanese sardine stock, whereas it reduces dust flux that can be transported to the eastern North Pacific, delaying the increase of California sardine stock. Analysis further indicates that productivity of Japanese sardine stock is jointly controlled by wet deposition of Asian dust and winter mixing, which supplies macronutrients from depth. California sardine productivity is inversely related to precipitation in the western North Pacific and is positively affected by precipitation off western North America. This indicates that Asian dust influx dominates productivity of the species because of iron-limited ocean productivity in the California sardine ranges. The analysis suggests that dust regime shifts influence shifts in sardine productivity regimes and that iron input from Asian dust during trans-Pacific transport is directly responsible. It appears that in addition to enhancing phytoplankton growth and carbon sinks, atmospheric iron deposition can regulate the production of living ocean resources, which is an extension of Martin's iron hypothesis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Zhang D.L.,Jimei University | Han F.,Jimei University | Yu D.H.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Xiao S.J.,Jimei University | And 3 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2015

Neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1) was recently identified in humans as an important immune factor responding to the challenge of virus, LPS or cytokine. Its role in fish immune defense and whether it is involved in anti-parasite immunity have not been proven yet. In this report, the full-length cDNA sequence and genomic structure of Nrdp1 in the large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (LcNrdp1) were identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LcNrdp1 was 1248bp, including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 32bp, a 3' UTR of 259bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 937bp, encoding a polypeptide of 318 amino acid residues. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of LcNrdp1 was composed of 2635 nucleotides, including four exons and three introns. The putative LcNrdp1 protein had no signal peptide sequence and contained a characteristic Nrdp1 consensus motif C3HC3D ring finger and a Coiled-coil domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Nrdp1 in fish was closer with that in other vertebrates (79%-90% amino acid identity) than in invertebrates and bacteria (27%-65%). In fishes, Nrdp1 in large yellow croaker was closer with that in Takifugu rubripes. The expression profile showed that LcNrdp1 was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues, especially highly expressed in brain, muscle and kidney. Post-infection (PI) with Cryptocaryon irritans, an increased expression of LcNrdp1 was induced in infection sites (skin and gill), whereas in immune organs, the expression of LcNrdp1 was up-regulated in spleen (except the 1st d and 10th d PI) but suppressed in head kidney. These results suggested that LcNrdp1 might play an important immune role in the finfish L. crocea in the defense against the parasite C. irritans. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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