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Yu H.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | Nason J.D.,Iowa State University
New Phytologist | Year: 2013

This study uses a phylogeographic approach to investigate how interspecific interactions in an obligate pollination mutualism enhance or constrain dispersal and the range distributions of species through time. Fifteen populations of Ficus hirta, a bird-dispersed fig pollinated by a species-specific fig wasp, were sampled from Thailand to the northern limits of the tropical forest in China. These populations were assayed for six nuclear microsatellite loci and two intergenic chloroplast DNA sequences. Analyses of range expansion and genetic clustering indicated a relatively slow rate of range expansion from two or more southern glacial refugia. Low nuclear differentiation, combined with high interpopulation differentiation, and phylogeographic structuring of chloroplast variation indicated that seed dispersal has had a greater constraint than obligate interactions with fig wasps on the rate of post-glacial range expansion. This study is the first to investigate the phylogeographic history of a widely distributed southeast Asian tropical plant whose distribution extends to the northern limits of tropical forest habitat in China. It is also the first study of Ficus utilizing molecular data to evaluate whether species-specific pollination is a limitation or an aid to range expansion in response to climate change. © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

Hou X.,National University of Singapore | Lee L.Y.C.,National University of Singapore | Xia K.,National University of Singapore | Xia K.,CAS South China Botanical Garden | And 2 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2010

Gibberellins (GAs) modulate jasmonate (JA) signaling, which is essential for stress response and development in plants. However, the molecular details of such phytohormone interaction remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the JA ZIM-domain 1 (JAZ1) protein, a key repressor of JA signaling, interacts in vivo with DELLA proteins, repressors of the GA pathway. DELLAs prevent inhibitory JAZ1 interaction with a key transcriptional activator of JA responses, MYC2, and, thus, enhance the ability of MYC2 to regulate its target genes. Conversely, GA triggers degradation of DELLAs, which allows JAZ1 to bind MYC2 and suppress MYC2-dependent JA-signaling outputs. Therefore, our results reveal one means by which GAs suppress cellular competence to respond to JA. Because DELLAs serve as central regulators that mediate the crosstalk of various phytohormones, our model also suggests a candidate mechanism by which JA signaling may be fine-tuned by other signaling pathways through DELLAs. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Ow D.W.,CAS South China Botanical Garden
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2011

The current method for combining transgenes into a genome is through the assortment of independent loci, a classical operating system compatible with transgenic traits created by different developers, at different times and/or through different transformation techniques. However, as the number of transgenic loci increases over time, increasingly larger populations are needed to find the rare individual with the desired assortment of transgenic loci along with the non-transgenic elite traits. Introducing a transgene directly into a field cultivar would bypass the need to introgress the engineered trait. However, this necessitates separate transformations into numerous field cultivars, along with the characterization and regulatory approval of each independent transformation event. Reducing the number of segregating transgenic loci could be achieved if multiple traits are introduced at the same time, a preferred option if each of the many traits is new or requires re-engineering. If re-engineering of previously introduced traits is not needed, then appending a new trait to an existing locus would be a rational strategy. The insertion of new DNA at a known locus can be accomplished by site-specific integration, through a host-dependent homology-based process, or a heterologous site-specific recombination system. Here, we discuss gene stacking through the use of site-specific recombinases. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Huang H.,CAS South China Botanical Garden
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2011

China is one of the richest countries for plant diversity with approximately 33000 vascular plant species, ranking second in the world. However, the plant diversity in China is increasingly threatened, with an estimated 4000-5000 plant species being threatened or on the verge of extinction, making China, proportionally, one of the highest priorities for global plant biodiversity conservation. Coming in the face of the current ecological crisis, it is timely that China has launched China's Strategy for Plant Conservation (CSPC). China has increasingly recognized the importance of plant diversity in efforts to conserve and sustainably use its plant diversity. More than 3000 nature reserves have been established, covering approximately 16% of the land surface of China. These natural reserves play important roles in plant conservation, covering more than 85% of types of terrestrial natural ecosystems, 40% of types of natural wetlands, 20% of native forests and 65% of natural communities of vascular plants. Meanwhile, the flora conserved in botanical gardens is also extensive. A recent survey shows that the 10 largest botanical gardens have living collections of 43502 taxa, with a total of 24667 species in ex situ conservation. These provide an important reserve of plant resources for sustainable economic and social development in China. Plant diversity is the basis for bioresources and sustainable utilization. The 21 st century is predicted to be an era of bio-economy driven by advances of bioscience and biotechnology. Bio-economy may become the fourth economy form after agricultural, industrial, and information and information technology economies, having far-reaching impacts on sustainable development in agriculture, forestry, environmental protection, light industry, food supply and health care and other micro-economy aspects. Thus, a strategic and forward vision for conservation of plant diversity and sustainable use of plant resources in the 21 st century is of far-reaching significance for sustainable development of Chinese economy and society. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London.

CAS South China Botanical Garden | Date: 2015-10-13

A citrus preservative includes 0.05%-0.5% of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride, 0.05%-0.2% of benzimidazole bactericide, 0.02%-0.15% of polyethenoxy and the balance water.

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