Lu X.-T.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology
ISME Journal | Year: 2017
The existence of biogeographic patterns among most free-living microbial taxa has been well established, yet little is known about the underlying mechanisms that shape these patterns. Here, we examined soil bacterial β-diversity across different habitats in the drylands of northern China. We evaluated the relative importance of environmental factors versus geographic distance to a distance–decay relationship, which would be explained by the relative effect of basic ecological processes recognized as drivers of diversity patterns in macrobial theoretical models such as selection and dispersal. Although the similarity of bacterial communities significantly declined with increasing geographic distance, the distance–decay slope and the relative importance of factors driving distance–decay patterns varied across different habitats. A strong distance–decay relationship was observed in the alpine grassland, where the community similarity was influenced only by the environmental factors. In contrast, geographic distance was solely responsible for community similarity in the desert. Even the average compositional similarity among locations in the desert was distinctly lower compared with those in other habitats. We found no evidence that dispersal limitation strongly influenced the β-diversity of bacterial communities in the desert grassland and typical grassland. Together, our results provide robust evidence of habitat specificity for microbial diversity patterns and their underlying drivers. Our findings suggest that microorganisms also have multiple drivers of diversity patterns and some of which may be parallel to some fundamental processes for explaining biodiversity patterns in macroorganisms.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 10 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.11. © 2017 International Society for Microbial Ecology
Zhu Q.,Dalian University of Technology |
Geng Y.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013
Due to increasing energy scarcity and environmental issues as well as the goal to develop low carbon society, the Chinese government initiated a comprehensive Energy Saving and Emission Reduction (ESER) program for sustainable production and consumption in 2005. Under the ESER program, Chinese manufacturers have struggled to reduce their environmental pollution and energy consumption. To achieve their ESER goals, Chinese manufacturers should cooperate with their suppliers and customers. However, it is not clear how to drive Chinese manufacturers to implement extended supply chain (ESC) practices for ESER goals, and what kinds of barriers exist. By utilizing a total of 299 usable questionnaires, we did descriptive analysis. Statistic results show that Chinese manufacturers implement ESC practices for ESER goals at a low level. Coercive, normative and mimetic drivers are generally weak while internal barriers are relatively higher. We further used hierarchical analysis to examine whether drivers motivate Chinese manufacturers to implement ESC practices for ESER goals, and whether barriers impede ESC practices. Main regression results and implications include: (1) Coercive drivers do not really motivate ESC practices for ESER goals. To promote ESC practices for the ESER goals, the Chinese government should enact stricter regulations and strengthen their enforcement level. (2) Normative drivers motivate Chinese manufacturers to implement sustainable purchasing. With the increasing environmental awareness of Chinese consumers, Chinese manufactures will have higher normative drivers and then be more proactive to implement sustainable purchasing. (3) Mimetic drivers promote both sustainable purchasing and sustainable customer cooperation. By learning from manufacturers in developed countries, especially those operating in China, Chinese manufacturers tend to implement ESC practice for ESER goals. (4) Internal barriers, such as lack of financial gains, resource and capability, are main obstacles for the implementation of sustainable customer cooperation. Thus, how to overcome internal barriers is a key for Chinese manufacturers to effectively and efficiently implement ESC practices for ESER goals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.