CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences

Shanghai, China

CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences

Shanghai, China
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CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Date: 2012-12-31

Provided is a method for plant improvement with the aim of increasing the light use efficiency of a plant. By expressing a light energy absorption and transduction (LEAT) protein in the plant, and by utilizing light energy absorbed to interact with a related methyl-quinone derivative in the plant body, such as plastoquinone, to catalyze water splitting and to release oxygen, the present invention increases the light use efficiency of the plant. The method effectively extends the utilization of light energy by the plant, thus increasing photosynthesis efficiency and yield.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-13-2015 | Award Amount: 6.43M | Year: 2016

MycoKey aims to generate innovative and integrated solutions that will support stakeholders in effective and sustainable mycotoxin management along food and feed chains. The project will contribute to reduce mycotoxin contamination mainly in Europe and China, where frequent and severe mycotoxin contaminations occur in crops, and where international trade of commodities and contaminated batches are increasing. MycoKey will address the major affected crops maize, wheat and barley, their associated toxigenic fungi and related mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins). The project will integrate key information and practical solutions for mycotoxin management into a smart ICT tool (MycoKey App), providing answers to stakeholders, who require rapid, customized forecasting, descriptive information on contamination risk/levels, decision support and practical economically-sound suggestions for intervention. Tools and methodologies will be strategically targeted for cost-effective application in the field and during storage, processing and transportation. Alternative and safe ways to use contaminated batches will be also delivered. The focus of Mycokey will be: i) innovating communications of mycotoxin management by applying ICT, providing input for legislation, enhancing knowledge and networks; ii) selecting and improving a range of tools for mycotoxin monitoring; iii) assessing the use of reliable solutions, sustainable compounds/green technologies in prevention, intervention and remediation. The multi-disciplinary consortium, composed by scientific, industrial and association partners (32), includes 11 Chinese institutions and will conduct the 4 years programme in a framework of international networks.

Tang Y.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Le W.,Dalian Medical University
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2016

One of the most striking hallmarks shared by various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Increasing evidence indicates that microglial activation in the central nervous system is heterogeneous, which can be categorized into two opposite types: M1 phenotype and M2 phenotype. Depending on the phenotypes activated, microglia can produce either cytotoxic or neuroprotective effects. In this review, we focus on the potential role of M1 and M2 microglia and the dynamic changes of M1/M2 phenotypes that are critically associated with the neurodegenerative diseases. Generally, M1 microglia predominate at the injury site at the end stage of disease, when the immunoresolution and repair process of M2 microglia are dampened. This phenotype transformation is very complicated in AD due to the phagocytosis of regionally distributed β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque and tangles that are released into the extracellular space. The endogenous stimuli including aggregated α-synuclein, mutated superoxide dismutase, Aβ, and tau oligomers exist in the milieu that may persistently activate M1 pro-inflammatory responses and finally lead to irreversible neuron loss. The changes of microglial phenotypes depend on the disease stages and severity; mastering the stage-specific switching of M1/M2 phenotypes within appropriate time windows may provide better therapeutic benefit. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Zhao H.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
Nature cell biology | Year: 2013

Dense multicilia in higher vertebrates are important for luminal flow and the removal of thick mucus. To generate hundreds of basal bodies for multiciliogenesis, specialized terminally differentiated epithelial cells undergo massive centriole amplification. In proliferating cells, however, centriole duplication occurs only once per cell cycle. How cells ensure proper regulation of centriole biogenesis in different contexts is poorly understood. We report that the centriole amplification is controlled by two duplicated genes, Cep63 and Deup1. Cep63 regulates mother-centriole-dependent centriole duplication. Deup1 governs deuterosome assembly to mediate large-scale de novo centriole biogenesis. Similarly to Cep63, Deup1 binds to Cep152 and then recruits Plk4 to activate centriole biogenesis. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that Deup1 diverged from Cep63 in a certain ancestor of lobe-finned fishes during vertebrate evolution and was subsequently adopted by tetrapods. Thus, the Cep63 gene duplication has enabled mother-centriole-independent assembly of the centriole duplication machinery to satisfy different requirements for centriole number.

Wang J.-W.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2014

Precise flowering time is critical to reproductive success. In response to diverse exogenous and endogenous cues including age, hormones, photoperiod, and temperature, the floral transition is controlled by a complex regulatory network, which involves extensive crosstalks, feedback, or feedforward loops between the components within flowering time pathways. The newly identified age pathway, which is controlled by microRNA156 (miR156) and its target SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors, ensures plants flower under non-inductive conditions. In this review, I summarize the recent advance in understanding of the age pathway, focusing on the regulatory basis of the developmental decline in miR156 level by age and the molecular mechanism by which the age pathway is integrated into other flowering time pathways. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

Chang H.-C.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Guarente L.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Sirtuins such as SIRT1 are conserved protein NAD+-dependent deacylases and thus their function is intrinsically linked to cellular metabolism. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has indicated that sirtuins are not only important energy status sensors but also protect cells against metabolic stresses. Sirtuins regulate the aging process and are themselves regulated by diet and environmental stress. The versatile functions of sirtuins including, more specifically, SIRT1 are supported by their diverse cellular location allowing cells to sense changes in energy levels in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondrion. SIRT1 plays a critical role in metabolic health by deacetylating many target proteins in numerous tissues, including liver, muscle, adipose tissue, heart, and endothelium. This sirtuin also exerts important systemic effects via the hypothalamus. This review will cover these topics and suggest that strategies to maintain sirtuin activity may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Sun L.,CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Wang X.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences
Trends in Biochemical Sciences | Year: 2014

Classically, there are two major forms of cell death: necrosis, an unregulated digestion of cellular components; and apoptosis, a programmed mechanism that is promoted by caspases. However, another form of cell death has recently been identified that is inhibited by caspases, and yet occurs through a regulated mechanism, termed programmed necrosis or necroptosis. The biochemical basis of this program has begun to emerge, with the discovery of the receptor-interacting kinase RIP3 and its substrate, the pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), as core components. Furthermore, animal models have revealed significant functions for RIP3/MLKL-mediated necrotic cell death in immune responses against microbial infection and in the etiology of diseases involving tissue damage. This review discusses recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic details and physiological functions of programmed necrosis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences and CAS Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica | Date: 2016-06-01

Disclosed is the use of an inverse agonist for alpha-subunit-containing gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor in the preparation of a medicine for the prevention, alleviation, or treatment of pain.

CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Date: 2016-10-26

Provided are extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) and fusion protein Fc-ECM1 of the ECM1 and the Fc sequence, and also provided are cloning construction and expression of the protein, and use of the protein in preparing a pharmaceutical composition for treating multiple sclerosis.

CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences | Date: 2016-02-03

The present invention provides a heat-resistance plant gene JAZ5a and use thereof. The inventors of the present invention isolated for the first time a heat resistance gene from the plant of Brassica spp., which can greatly improve the heat-resistance ability of the plant, especially in the bolting stage. The present invention further provides a protein encoded by said gene and its preparation method, vectors and host cells containing said gene, and a method for preparing a transgenic plant containing said gene.

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