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He Q.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | He Q.,University of Leeds | Shi J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

In the anti-cancer war, there are three main obstacles resulting in high mortality and recurrence rate of cancers: the severe toxic side effect of anti-cancer drugs to normal tissues due to the lack of tumor-selectivity, the multi-drug resistance (MDR) to free chemotherapeutic drugs and the deadly metastases of cancer cells. The development of state-of-art nanomedicines based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is expected to overcome the above three main obstacles. In the view of the fast development of anti-cancer strategy, this review highlights the most recent advances of MSN anti-cancer nanomedicines in enhancing chemotherapeutic efficacy, overcoming the MDR and inhibiting metastasis. Furthermore, we give an outlook of the future development of MSNs-based anti-cancer nanomedicines, and propose several innovative and forward-looking anti-cancer strategies, including tumor tissue-cell-nuclear successionally targeted drug delivery strategy, tumor cell-selective nuclear-targeted drug delivery strategy, multi-targeting and multi-drug strategy, chemo-/radio-/photodynamic-/ultrasound-/thermo-combined multi-modal therapy by virtue of functionalized hollow/rattle-structured MSNs. Anti-cancer nanomedicine: mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) nanomedicines functionalized with targeting, burst responsive, and payload units, as well as a stealth coating, can enhance the chemotherapeutic efficacy and lower toxic side effects by tumor/cell membrane/nuclear-targeted drug delivery and pH/redox/protease- responsive drug release. Moreover, MSN nanomedicines overcome multi-drug resistance by the multi-drug synergy strategy, the effluxcircumventing strategy, and the multimodal combination therapy strategy, and inhibit tumor metastasis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Zhu Y.-J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Chen F.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014

Microwaves are the electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from 0.3 to 300 GHz and with wavelengths of between 1 mm and 1 m, which are between infrared and radio frequency waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. The commonly used frequency in laboratories and homes for microwave heating is 2.45 GHz. Nowadays, more laboratories of materials science as well as organic and pharmaceutical chemical laboratories have been equipped with microwave reactors. Many early publications on microwave-assisted synthesis were carried out in household microwave ovens, and experimental parameters like microwave power, reaction temperature, and pressure inside the vessel were not precisely known in household microwave ovens. These uncertainties led to poor control over the synthesis and a lack of reproducibility of experiments.

Chen Y.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Chen H.-R.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Shi J.-L.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

Colloidal hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) are aspecial type of silica-based nanomaterials with penetrating mesopore channels on their shells. HMSNs exhibit unique structural characteristics useful for diverse applications: Firstly, the hollow interiors can function as reservoirs for enhanced loading of guest molecules, or as nanoreactors for the growth of nanocrystals or for catalysis in confined spaces. Secondly, the mesoporous silica shell enables the free diffusion of guest molecules through the intact shell. Thirdly, the outer silica surface is ready for chemical modifications, typically via its abundant Si-OH bonds.As early as 2003, researchers developed a soft-templating methodto prepare hollow aluminosilicate spheres with penetrating mesopores in a cubic symmetry pattern on the shells. However, adapting this method for applications on the nanoscale, especially for biomedicine, has proved difficult because the soft templating micelles are very sensitive to liquid environments, making it difficult to tune key parameters such as dispersity, morphology and structure. In this Account, we present the most recent developments in the tailored construction of highly dispersive and monosized HMSNs using simple silica-etching chemistry, and we discuss these particles' excellent performance in diverse applications. We first introduce general principles of silica-etching chemistry for controlling the chemical composition and the structural parameters (particle size, pore size, etching modalities, yolk-shell nanostructures, etc.) of HMSNs. Secondly, we include recent progress in constructing heterogeneous, multifunctional, hollow mesoporous silica nanorattles via several methods for diverse applications. These elaborately designed HMSNs could be topologically transformed to prepare hollow mesoporous carbon nanoparticles or functionalized to produce HMSN-based composite nanomaterials. Especially in biomedicine, HMSNs are excellent as carriers to deliver either hydrophilic or hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs, to tumor cells, offering enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy and diminished toxic side effects. Most recently, research has shown that loading one or more anticancer drugs into HMSNs can inhibit metastasis or reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. HMSNs could also deliver hydrophobic perfluorohexane (PFH) molecules to improve high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) cancer surgery by changing the tissue acoustic environment; and HMSNs could act as nanoreactors for enhanced catalytic activity and/or durability. The versatility of silica-etching chemistry, a simple but scalable synthetic methodology, offers great potential for the creation of new types of HMSN-based nanostructures in a range of applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Chen Y.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Chen H.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Shi J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

The remarkable progress of nanotechnology and its application in biomedicine have greatly expanded the ranges and types of biomaterials from traditional organic material-based nanoparticles (NPs) to inorganic biomaterials or organic/inorganic hybrid nanocomposites due to the unprecedented advantages of the engineered inorganic material-based NPs. Colloidal mesoporous silica NPs (MSNs), one of the most representative and well-established inorganic materials, have been promoted into biology and medicine, and shifted from extensive in vitro research towards preliminary in vivo assays in small-animal disease models. In this comprehensive review, the recent progresses in chemical design and engineering of MSNs-based biomaterials for in vivo biomedical applications has been detailed and overviewed. Due to the intrinsic structural characteristics of elaborately designed MSNs such as large surface area, high pore volume and easy chemical functionalization, they have been extensively investigated for therapeutic, diagnostic and theranostic (concurrent diagnosis and therapy) purposes, especially in oncology. Systematic in vivo bio-safety evaluations of MSNs have revealed the evidences that the in vivo bio-behaviors of MSNs are strongly related to their preparation prodecures, particle sizes, geometries, surface chemistries, dosing parameters and even administration routes. In vivo pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics further demonstrated the effectiveness of MSNs as the passively and/or actively targeted drug delivery systems (DDSs) for cancer chemotherapy. Especially, the advance of nano-synthetic chemistry enables the production of composite MSNs for advanced in vivo therapeutic purposes such as gene delivery, stimuli-responsive drug release, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, ultrasound therapy, or anti-bacteria in tissue engineering, or as the contrast agents for biological and diagnostic imaging. Additionally, the critical issues and potential challenges related to the chemical design/synthesis of MSNs-based "magic bullet" by advanced nano-synthetic chemistry and in vivo evaluation have been discussed to highlight the issues scientists face in promoting the translation of MSNs-based DDSs into clinical trials. Significant progress in nano-biotechnology has promoted the biomedical evaluation and diagnostic/therapeutic applications of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) from extensive in vitro research towards preliminary in vivo evaluation. This comprehensive review highlights the recent progresses in the chemical design and engineering of MSN-based biomaterials for in vivo biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Li Y.,East China University of Science and Technology | Shi J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Shi J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
Advanced Materials | Year: 2014

Hollow-structured mesoporous materials (HMMs), as a kind of mesoporous material with unique morphology, have been of great interest in the past decade because of the subtle combination of the hollow architecture with the mesoporous nanostructure. Benefitting from the merits of low density, large void space, large specific surface area, and, especially, the good biocompatibility, HMMs present promising application prospects in various fields, such as adsorption and storage, confined catalysis when catalytically active species are incorporated in the core and/or shell, controlled drug release, targeted drug delivery, and simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancers when the surface and/or core of the HMMs are functionalized with functional ligands and/or nanoparticles, and so on. In this review, recent progress in the design, synthesis, functionalization, and applications of hollow mesoporous materials are discussed. Two main synthetic strategies, soft-templating and hard-templating routes, are broadly sorted and described in detail. Progress in the main application aspects of HMMs, such as adsorption and storage, catalysis, and biomedicine, are also discussed in detail in this article, in terms of the unique features of the combined large void space in the core and the mesoporous network in the shell. Functionalization of the core and pore/outer surfaces with functional organic groups and/or nanoparticles, and their performance, are summarized in this article. Finally, an outlook of their prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and scaled application is presented. Hollow-structured mesoporous materials (HMMs), a type of mesoporous material with a unique morphology, present promising application prospects in the fields of storage, adsorption and separation, confined catalysis, controlled drug release, and simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancers, owing to the subtle combination of the hollow architecture with the mesoporous nanostructure. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Shi J.,CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Shi J.,East China University of Science and Technology | Shi J.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

The heterogeneous catalytic performance is largely dependent on the catalyst nanostructures or, in another word, processing technologies, in addition to the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of the constitutive components. Compared to the amorphous framework of mesoporous silica, mesoporous metal oxides synthesized by a hard templatereplicating method usually have a crystallized structure and exhibit excellent catalytic activities, as reported in many documents. The loading or dispersion of catalytically active guest species into the host mesopore network results in mesostructured composites of a crystallized framework and highly dispersed catalytic species in its mesopore network. Mesoporous inorganic oxide materials, in the form of either powder or thin film, with high surface areas, ordered pore structures, finely tunable pore sizes, and flexible wallcompositions have been investigated widely of their chemical synthesis and potential applications in catalysis, adsorption, chemical sensing, electrochemistry, biomedical areas, and so on.

CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Date: 2016-08-31

A titanium oxide-based supercapacitor electrode material and a method of manufacturing same. A reactive substance of the titanium oxide-based supercapacitor electrode material is a conductive titanium oxide. The conductive titanium oxide is a sub-stoichiometric titanium oxide, reduced titanium dioxide, or doped reduced titanium dioxide obtained by further doping an element in reduced titanium dioxide. The titanium oxide-based supercapacitor electrode material has a carrier concentration greater than 10^(18) cm^(-3), and the titanium oxide-based supercapacitor electrode material has a specific capacitance 20 F/g to 1,740 F/g at a charge/discharge current of 1 A/g.

CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Date: 2016-03-10

A low temperature co-fired ceramic powder has a chemical composition of xR_(2)O-yRO-zM_(2)O_(3)-wMO_(2), wherein R is Li, Na and/or K, R is Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn and/or Cu, M is B, Al, Ga, In, Bi, Nd, Sm, and/or La, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, and/or Zr, x0, y0, z20%, w15%, and x+y+z+w=1. The preparation method comprises: weighing constituent powders according to the composition of the ceramic powder, and uniformly mixing these powders as a raw material powder; and presintering the raw material powder in a muffle furnace followed by grinding, the presintering comprising gradiently heating the raw material powder to a maximum temperature of 950 C. by first rising to 350-450 C. and staying thereat for a period, then staying at intervals of 50-100 C. for a period.

The present invention relates to a P-type high-performance thermoelectric material featuring reversible phase change, and a preparation method therefor. The thermoelectric material has a chemical composition of Cu_(2)Se_(1-x)I_(x), wherein 0 < x 0.08. The method comprises: weighing elemental copper metal, elemental selenium metal, and cuprous iodide according to the molar ratio (2-x):(1-x):x, and packaging them in a vacuum; raising the temperature to 1150-1170 C in stages and performing a melting treatment for 12-24 hours; lowering the temperature to 600-700 C in stages and then performing an annealing treatment for 5-7 days, the substances being cooled to room temperature in a furnace after the annealing treatment; and performing pressure sintering at 400-500 C.

CAS Shanghai Institute of Ceramics | Date: 2015-04-27

The present invention relates to a hydrothermal method for preparing a doped vanadium dioxide powder, the doped powder having a chemical composition of V_(1-X)M_(X)O_(2), 0

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