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Du Z.L.,CAS National Astronomical Observatories
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

Some properties of the 11 yr solar cycle can be explained by the current solar dynamo models. However, some other features remain not well understood such as the asymmetry of the cycle, the double-peaked structure, and the "Waldmeier effect" that a stronger cycle tends to have less rise time and a shorter cycle length. We speculate that the solar cycle is governed by a bi-dynamo model forming two stochastic processes depicted by a bimodal Gaussian function with a time gap of about 2 yr, from which the above features can be reasonably explained. The first one describes the main properties of the cycle dominated by the current solar dynamo models, and the second one occurs either in the rising phase as a short weak explosive perturbation or in the declining phase as a long stochastic perturbation. The above function is the best one selected from several in terms of the Akaike information criterion. Through analyzing different distributions, one might speculate about the dominant physical process inside the convection zone. The secondary (main) process is found to be closely associated with complicated (simple) active ranges. In effect, the bi-dynamo model is a reduced form of a multi-dynamo model, which could occur from the base of the convection zone through its envelope and from low to high heliographic latitude, reflecting the active belts in the convection zone. These results are insensitive to the hemispheric asymmetry, smoothing filters, and distribution functions selected and are expected to be helpful in understanding the formation of solar and stellar cycles. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Li L.,CAS National Astronomical Observatories
Nature Physics | Year: 2016

Magnetic reconnection is difficult to observe directly but coronal structures on the Sun often betray the magnetic field geometry and its evolution. Here we report the observation of magnetic reconnection between an erupting filament and its nearby coronal loops, resulting in changes in the filament connection. X-type structures form when the erupting filament encounters the loops. The filament becomes straight, and bright current sheets form at the interfaces. Plasmoids appear in these current sheets and propagate bi-directionally. The filament disconnects from the current sheets, which gradually disperse and disappear, then reconnects to the loops. This evolution suggests successive magnetic reconnection events predicted by theory but rarely detected with such clarity in observations. Our results confirm the three-dimensional magnetic reconnection theory and have implications for the evolution of dissipation regions and the release of magnetic energy for reconnection in many magnetized plasma systems. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group Source

Tan B.,CAS National Astronomical Observatories
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

Solar small-scale microwave bursts (SMBs), including microwave dot, spike, and narrow-band type III bursts, are characterized by very short timescales, narrow frequency bandwidth, and very high brightness temperatures. Based on observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou with superhigh cadence and frequency resolution, this work presents an intensive investigation of SMBs in several flares that occurred in active region NOAA 10720 during 2005 January 14-21. Especially for long-duration flares, the SMBs occurred not only in the early rising and impulsive phase, but also in the flare decay phase and even after the end of the flare. These SMBs are strong bursts with inferred brightness temperatures of at least 8.18 × 10 11-1.92 × 1013 K, very short lifetimes of 5-18 ms, relative frequency bandwidths of 0.7%-3.5%, and superhigh frequency drifting rates. Together with their obviously different polarizations from background emission (the quiet Sun, and the underlying flaring broadband continuum), such SMBs should be individual, independent strong coherent bursts related to some non-thermal energy release and the production of energetic particles in a small-scale source region. These facts show the existence of small-scale strong non-thermal energy releasing activities after the flare maxima, which is meaningful for predicting space weather. Physical analysis indicates that a plasma mechanism may be the most favorable candidate for the formation of SMBs. From the plasma mechanism, the velocities and kinetic energy of fast electrons can be deduced and the region of electron acceleration can also be tracked. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Mao X.-C.,CAS National Astronomical Observatories
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

The ability to subtract foreground contamination from low-frequency observations is crucial to reveal the underlying 21 cm signal. The traditional line-of-sight methods can deal with the removal of diffuse emission and unresolved point sources, but not bright point sources. In this paper, we introduce a foreground cleaning technique in Fourier space, which allows us to handle all such foregrounds simultaneously and thus sidestep any special treatments to bright point sources. Its feasibility is tested with a simulated data cube for the 21 CentiMeter Array experiment. This data cube includes more realistic models for the 21 cm signal, continuum foregrounds, detector noise, and frequency-dependent instrumental response. We find that a combination of two weighting schemes can be used to protect the frequency coherence of foregrounds: the uniform weighting in the uv plane and the inverse-variance weighting in the spectral fitting. The visibility spectrum is therefore well approximated by a quartic polynomial along the line of sight. With this method, we demonstrate that the huge foreground contamination can be cleaned out effectively with residuals on the order of ∼10 mK, while the spectrally smooth component of the cosmological signal is also removed, bringing about a systematic underestimate in the extracted power spectrum primarily on large scales. Source

Zhang H.,CAS National Astronomical Observatories
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

The transfer of magnetic chirality in solar active regions is related to the emerging magnetic flux ropes generated in the subatmosphere. This analysis has been presented based on the calculation of the injection of magnetic helicity at the solar surface. As the long-term evolution of the accumulated magnetic helicity is followed, it is found that the transfer of reversal magnetic helicity of active regions is a complex process, and is not monotonic with the same sign. It is found that the dominant contribution of helicity occurs mainly in the fast-developing stage of active regions. By considering the hemispheric trends of magnetic helicity, it is proposed that the reversal helicity in solar active regions has two possible causes: local generation in the convection zone, and trans-equatorial processes in the subatmosphere. In addition to the mirror-symmetrical reverse of twisted magnetic field in the convection zone, the possibility of a trans-equatorial process is discussed in this paper. © 2011 The Author Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS. Source

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