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Scheuring I.,Eötvös Loránd University | Yu D.W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Yu D.W.,University of East Anglia
Ecology Letters | Year: 2012

There is great interest in explaining how beneficial microbiomes are assembled. Antibiotic-producing microbiomes are arguably the most abundant class of beneficial microbiome in nature, having been found on corals, arthropods, molluscs, vertebrates and plant rhizospheres. An exemplar is the attine ants, which cultivate a fungus for food and host a cuticular microbiome that releases antibiotics to defend the fungus from parasites. One explanation posits long-term vertical transmission of Pseudonocardia bacteria, which (somehow) evolve new compounds in arms-race fashion against parasites. Alternatively, attines (somehow) selectively recruit multiple, non-coevolved actinobacterial genera from the soil, enabling a 'multi-drug' strategy against parasites. We reconcile the models by showing that when hosts fuel interference competition by providing abundant resources, the interference competition favours the recruitment of antibiotic-producing (and -resistant) bacteria. This partner-choice mechanism is more effective when at least one actinobacterial symbiont is vertically transmitted or has a high immigration rate, as in disease-suppressive soils. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.


Patent
CAS Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology and Kunming Jingbiao Biosciences R&d Co. | Date: 2010-06-09

The present invention relates to the application of 5-methyl-1,3-benzenediol or its derivatives represented by Formula I; wherein the constituent variables are as defined herein or pharmaceutical compositions thereof containing them in the preparation of medicines or functional foods. The present studies indicate that 5-methyl-1,3-benzenediol or its derivatives represented by Formula I, wherein the constituent variables are as defined herein or pharmaceutical compositions thereof containing them show more significant antidepressant effects than fluoxetine or imipramine.


Qin D.D.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2013

In animal societies, some stressful events can lead to higher levels of physiological stress. Such stressors, like social rank, also predict an increased vulnerability to an array of diseases. However, the physiological relationship between social rank and stress varies between different species, as well as within groups of a single species. For example, dominant individuals are more socially stressed at times, while at other times it is the subordinate ones who experience this stress. Together, these variations make it difficult to assess disease vulnerability as connected to social interactions. In order to learn more about how physiological rank relationships vary between groups of a single species, cortisol measurements from hair samples were used to evaluate the effects of dominance rank on long-term stress levels in despotic and less stringent female rhesus macaque hierarchal groups. In despotic groups, cortisol levels were found not to be correlated with social rank, but a negative correlation was found between social rank and cortisol levels in less stringent hierarchies. Low ranking monkeys in less stringent groups secreted elevated levels of cortisol compared to higher ranking animals. These data suggest that variations in the strictness of the dominance hierarchy are determining factors in rank related stress physiology. The further consideration of nonhuman primate social system diversity and the linear degree of their hierarchies may allow for the development of valid rank-related stress models that will help increase our understanding and guide the development of new therapeutics for diseases related to human socioeconomic status.


Xu L.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2013

The tree shrew is currently located in the Order Scandentia and is widely distributed in Southeast Asia, South Asia, and South China. Due to its unique characteristics, such as small body size, high brain-to-body mass ratio, short reproductive cycle and life span, and low-cost of maintenance, the tree shrew has been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, there is unresolved debate regarding the phylogenetic affinity of tree shrews to primates and their phylogenetic position in Euarchontoglires. To help settle this debate, we summarized the available molecular evidence on the phylogenetic position of the tree shrew. Most nuclear DNA data, including recent genome data, suggested that the tree shrew belongs to the Euarchonta clade harboring primates and flying lemurs (colugos). However, analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data suggested a close relationship to lagomorphs and rodents. These different clustering patterns could be explained by nuclear gene data and mtDNA data discrepancies, as well as the different phylogenetic approaches used in previous studies. Taking all available conclusions together, the robust data from whole genome of this species supports tree shrews being genetically closely related to primates.


Xu L.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology
Dong wu xue yan jiu = Zoological research / "Dong wu xue yan jiu" bian ji wei yuan hui bian ji | Year: 2013

Animal models are indispensible in biomedical research and have made tremendous contributions to answer fundamental questions on human biology, disease mechanisms, and to the development of new drugs and diagnostic tools. Due to the limitations of rodent models in translational medicine, tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), the closest relative of primates, have attracted increasing attention in modeling human diseases and therapeutic responses. Here we discuss the recent progress in tree shrew biology and the development of tree shrews as human disease models including infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, and cancers. Meanwhile, the current problems and future perspectives of the tree shrew model are explored.


Ma Z.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2012

We set two objectives for this study: one is to emulate chaotic natural populations in GA (Genetic Algorithms) populations by utilizing the Logistic Chaos map model, and the other is to analyze the population fitness distribution by utilizing insect spatial distribution theory. Natural populations are so dynamic that one of the first experimental evidences of Chaos in nature was discovered by a theoretical ecologist, May (1976, Nature, 261,459-467)[30], in his analysis of insect population dynamics. In evolutionary computing, perhaps influenced by the stable or infinite population concepts in population genetics, the status quo of population settings has dominantly been the fixed-size populations. In this paper, we propose to introduce dynamic populations controlled by the Logistic Chaos map model to Genetic Algorithms (GA), and test the hypothesis - whether or not the dynamic populations that emulate chaotic populations in nature will have an advantage over traditional fixed-size populations. The Logistic Chaos map model, arguably the simplest nonlinear dynamics model, has surprisingly rich dynamic behaviors, ranging from exponential, sigmoid growth, periodic oscillations, and aperiodic oscillations, to complete Chaos. What is even more favorable is that, unlike many other population dynamics models, this model can be expressed as a single parameter recursion equation, which makes it very convenient to control the dynamic behaviors and therefore easy to apply to evolutionary computing. The experiments show result values in terms of the fitness evaluations and memory storage requirements. We further conjecture that Chaos may be helpful in breaking neutral space in the fitness landscape, similar to the argument in ecology that Chaos may help the exploration and/or exploitation of environment heterogeneity and therefore enhance a species' survival or fitness. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Chen Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Jiang J.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
Cell Research | Year: 2013

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays pivotal roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis, and its deregulation leads to numerous human disorders including cancer. Binding of Hh to Patched (Ptc), a twelve-transmembrane protein, alleviates its inhibition of Smoothened (Smo), a seven-transmembrane protein related to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), leading to Smo phosphorylation and activation. Smo acts through intracellular signaling complexes to convert the latent transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci)/Gli from a truncated repressor to a full-length activator, leading to derepression/activation of Hh target genes. Increasing evidence suggests that phosphorylation participates in almost every step in the signal relay from Smo to Ci/Gli, and that differential phosphorylation of several key pathway components may be crucial for translating the Hh morphogen gradient into graded pathway activities. In this review, we focus on the multifaceted roles that phosphorylation plays in Hh signal transduction, and discuss the conservation and difference between Drosophila and mammalian Hh signaling mechanisms. © 2013 IBCB, SIBS, CAS All rights reserved.


Gene duplication is supposed to be the major source for genetic innovations. However, how a new duplicate gene acquires functions by integrating into a pathway and results in adaptively important phenotypes has remained largely unknown. Here, we investigated the biological roles and the underlying molecular mechanism of the young kep1 gene family in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup to understand the origin and evolution of new genes with new functions. Sequence and expression analysis demonstrates that one of the new duplicates, nsr (novel spermatogenesis regulator), exhibits positive selection signals and novel subcellular localization pattern. Targeted mutagenesis and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis provide evidence that nsr is required for male reproduction associated with sperm individualization, coiling, and structural integrity of the sperm axoneme via regulation of several Y chromosome fertility genes post-transcriptionally. The absence of nsr-like expression pattern and the presence of the corresponding cis-regulatory elements of the parental gene kep1 in the pre-duplication species Drosophila yakuba indicate that kep1 might not be ancestrally required for male functions and that nsr possibly has experienced the neofunctionalization process, facilitated by changes of trans-regulatory repertories. These findings not only present a comprehensive picture about the evolution of a new duplicate gene but also show that recently originated duplicate genes can acquire multiple biological roles and establish novel functional pathways by regulating essential genes.


Patent
CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Date: 2012-05-09

A horsefly protease tabfiblysin isolated from the salivary gland of the horsefly, Tabanus Yao, a gene encoding the protease and use thereof are disclosed by the present invention. It belongs to the technical field of biomedicine. The molecular weight of the horsefly protease tabfiblysin is 27145.5 Daltons. Its full-length sequence is composed of 255 amino acids. Its encoding sequence is composed of 768 nucleotides. The horsefly protease tabfiblysin can hydrolyze fibrinogen and inhibit the aggregation of blood platelet dramatically, and can be used for preparing the drug for treating thrombotic diseases.


Patent
CAS Kunming Institute of Botany, CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology and Yunnan University | Date: 2011-10-13

Nitrogen-containing biphenyl compounds as represented by formula (I), pharmaceutically acceptable salts or derivatives thereof, pharmaceutical compositions, and preparation methods therefore, and anti-HIV-1 use of the compound. Each substituent group in formula (I) is as defined in the description.

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