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Rocha P.S.C.F.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture
Planta | Year: 2015

Main conclusion: RCI2/PMP3s participate in abiotic stress responses and impact the expression of other genes. Their multifunctionality is determined by differential expression and by distinct activities of their structurally different proteins.In plants, RCI2/PMP3 genes, which encode small membrane proteins of the PMP3 family, are closely associated with abiotic stress responses. Their involvement in mediating stress tolerance is supported by genetic evidence and overexpression studies. RCI2/PMP3s occur as multigenes in plant genomes and their encoded proteins belong to distinct and conserved structural groups. In addition, different isoforms appear to be targeted to the plasma membrane or to distinct endomembrane compartments in cells. Several studies have revealed that RCI2/PMP3 proteins participate in cell ion homeostasis, and in regulation of membrane stability and polarization. They also appear to potentiate plant transcriptional responses to abiotic stresses. However, their mechanisms of action remain unknown. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the multiple roles of plant RCI2/PMP3 genes resulting from their differential expression under normal and stress conditions. The structural diversity of RCI2/PMP3 proteins is analyzed and evidence supporting their functional specialization and possible activity mechanisms is examined. Finally, strategies are discussed for exploiting new and established technologies to overcome the difficulties posed by the multigene status of RCI2s and the integral membrane character of their proteins, enabling the probing of their individual functions and collective significance. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The affiliation of the Pedro Rocha is incorrect. The correct affiliation is given below: Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yuan Da Er Lu, 644, Changsha 410125, People's Republic of China. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Wu J.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture
European Journal of Soil Science | Year: 2011

Carbon (C) sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems can play a role in counteracting the rapid increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. In this study, soils were sampled from some 2700 sites under contrasting land uses in four selected landscape units as representatives of the lowland (LL), low hill (LH), high hill (HH) and karst mountain (KM) areas in subtropical China. The aim was to quantify the potential for C sequestration in paddy ecosystems in the region. The mean values of organic C stocks in paddy soils (0-20 cm) in the landscape units varied from 37.8 to 60.4 t ha-1, and were considerably larger than those for soils under arable cropping and orchard managements, and even under woodland except in the KM landscape unit. In the LH unit, the mean organic C concentration in paddy soils increased by 1.67 times (P < 0.05) during the period between 1979 and 2003. This increase was consistent with the prolonged increase (since the 1950s) in rice productivity in the region. It is concluded that paddy ecosystems in subtropical China have the ability to accumulate organic C faster than other ecosystems. Because these landscape units represent the real situation in paddy ecosystems under farmers' practices for rice production, the data confirm that prolonged organic C accumulation in paddy soils has occurred in subtropical China. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 British Society of Soil Science. Source

Zhao J.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Zhao J.,University of Vermont | Zhao J.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Neher D.A.,University of Vermont
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2013

Nematode community indices would be more cost-effective and interpretable if ambiguous genera were removed and indices reduced to only genera with known sensitivity or response to specific types of disturbance. The objective of the present study was to perform a methodical multivariate analysis of existing datasets of high quality and enumerate the genera that respond universally consistent to a specific type of disturbance, treatment, or management worldwide. We collected 20 sources of original data from land used for agricultural purposes, whether cropland, livestock grazing or fruit orchard with manipulated treatments in cultivation, inorganic or organic fertilization or contaminated by heavy metals. Canonical correspondence analysis was performed to determine the effect of disturbance type on the composition of soil nematode communities. Genera that performed consistently in a single direction and across at least two seasons were identified. Briefly, cultivation reduced abundances of Diphtherophora, Prismatolaimus and Tylenchorhynchus. Application of synthetic chemical fertilizers reduced numbers of Plectus. Application of organic fertilizers resulted in increased numbers of Cruznema, Mesorhabditus, Mesodorylaimus and Nygolaimus. No genera met the criteria for responding positively to either cultivation or inorganic fertilization or negatively to organic fertilization. The source of nutrients apparently affected nematode communities differently. Selected nematode genera were correlated positively with the heavy metals Cd, Cu and Zn, while nematode genera correlated negatively with Cr and Se. These genera need to be verified by independent data to confirm that they respond predictably and consistently to these specific types of disturbance. Once verified, this subset of genera will improve interpretation of index values and can be the initial targets for developing molecular probes that can be made accessible to non-specialists. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Li Y.,CAS Institute of Subtropical Agriculture | Li Y.,University of Melbourne
Geoderma | Year: 2010

The data quality of soil properties, such as the soil organic matter (SOM) content, can be improved and the spatial sampling intensities may be reduced by incorporating secondary information, such as those derived from topographic (TOPO) and remote sensing (RS) data to enhance their spatial estimates. This study adopted a generic framework for spatial interpolation using regression kriging (RK) developed by Hengl et al. (2004) to evaluate RK's capability in improving SOM spatial interpolation using internal secondary variables (sampling coordinates) and external auxiliary information, such as soil map (SOIL), vegetation indices (VIs) derived from a Landsat 5 TM image, and several terrain attributes (elevation, slope, convergence and wetness indices, and plan and profile curvatures). Meanwhile, the SOM spatial distribution was also interpolated by using ordinary kriging (OK) and universal kriging (UK) methods for comparison purposes. The results of this study showed that the prediction accuracy of SOM by using RK was unimproved with the inclusion of more auxiliary information in the regression models, but in contrast it significantly declined when TOPO, VI and SOIL information were combined, particularly the last one. It was also observed that with the increase of the minimum sampling distances from 25 to 500m or with the decrease of the sampling densities from 0.42 to 0.26 # km-2, the RK techniques did not outperform OK and UK in improving the SOM prediction accuracy at coarse sampling resolutions. Interestingly, the highest accuracy of the SOM prediction by all these interpolation methods was achieved at the minimum sampling distance of 250m. The suitability of RK implementation in the spatial interpolation was therefore discussed by considering the minimum sampling distance, the sampling density and the compatibility of spatial resolutions of target variables and auxiliary information or the spatial scales. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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