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Ohio State Innovation Foundation, CAS Institute of Psychology, Adaptive Sensory Technology, Llc and Beijing Juehua Medical Technology Co. | Date: 2015-04-30

In one embodiment, the invention provides the use of an interocular inhibition procedure (IIP) for discriminating between anisometropic amblyopia and myopia, two disorders commonly confused in visual examination without proper optical correction. The inventors identified that opaque and translucent patching over the fellow (or untested) eye would result in different contrast sensitivities in the amblyopic (or tested) eye. In another embodiment, the invention provides a procedure for identifying amblyopia and myopia/hyperopia through the use of a pinhole aperture. Also disclosed are apparatus utilized in the procedures.

Chen J.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Li X.,CAS Institute of Psychology | McGue M.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2013

Background Confounding introduced by gene-environment correlation (rGE) may prevent one from observing a true gene-environment interaction (G × E) effect on psychopathology. The present study investigated the interacting effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and stressful life events (SLEs) on adolescent depression while controlling for the rGE by two means: separating pure environmental factors (independent SLEs) from the environmental factors under partial genetic control (dependent SLEs) and adopting a prospective longitudinal design. Methods A total of 780 pairs of Chinese twins, aged 11-17 years (mean = 13.6, SD = 1.8) at intake, were followed up twice. Self-reported depression symptoms at Time 1 and Time 2 were assessed by the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). SLEs occurring between Time 1 and Time 2 were assessed by a self-reported checklist. SLEs were differentiated into independent and dependent ones and were validated by heritability analyses using twin design. The interacting effects between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and numbers of SLEs (total SLEs and independent SLEs) on intraindividual change of depression symptoms were examined. Results After controlling for sex, age, age square, and Time 1 depression, both total SLEs × BDNF Val66Met genotype and independent SLEs × BDNF Val66Met genotype significantly predicted Time 2 depression. Val allele carriers (Val/Val and Val/Met) were more susceptible to the detrimental effects of stress. Conclusions There is a true G × E effect underlying the observed interaction between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and environmental stress on depression. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

Zuo X.-N.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Xing X.-X.,Beijing University of Technology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Neuroimaging community usually employs spatial smoothing to denoise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, e.g., Gaussian smoothing kernels. Such an isotropic diffusion (ISD) based smoothing is widely adopted for denoising purpose due to its easy implementation and efficient computation. Beyond these advantages, Gaussian smoothing kernels tend to blur the edges, curvature and texture of images. Researchers have proposed anisotropic diffusion (ASD) and non-local diffusion (NLD) kernels. We recently demonstrated the effect of these new filtering paradigms on preprocessing real degraded MRI images from three individual subjects. Here, to further systematically investigate the effects at a group level, we collected both structural and functional MRI data from 23 participants. We first evaluated the three smoothing strategies' impact on brain extraction, segmentation and registration. Finally, we investigated how they affect subsequent mapping of default network based on resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) data. Our findings suggest that NLD-based spatial smoothing maybe more effective and reliable at improving the quality of both MRI data preprocessing and default network mapping. We thus recommend NLD may become a promising method of smoothing structural MRI images of R-fMRI pipeline. © 2011 Zuo, Xing.

Ott J.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Ott J.,Rockefeller University | Wang J.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Leal S.M.,Baylor College of Medicine
Nature Reviews Genetics | Year: 2015

For many years, linkage analysis was the primary tool used for the genetic mapping of Mendelian and complex traits with familial aggregation. Linkage analysis was largely supplanted by the wide adoption of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, with the recent increased use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS), linkage analysis is again emerging as an important and powerful analysis method for the identification of genes involved in disease aetiology, often in conjunction with WGS filtering approaches. Here, we review the principles of linkage analysis and provide practical guidelines for carrying out linkage studies using WGS data. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Zuo X.-N.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Xing X.-X.,Beijing University of Technology
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RFMRI) enables researchers to monitor fluctuations in the spontaneous brain activities of thousands of regions in the human brain simultaneously, representing a popular tool for macro-scale functional connectomics to characterize normal brain function, mind-brain associations, and the various disorders. However, the test-retest reliability of RFMRI remains largely unknown. We review previously published papers on the test-retest reliability of voxel-wise metrics and conduct a meta-summary reliability analysis of seven common brain networks. This analysis revealed that the heteromodal associative (default, control, and attention) networks were mostly reliable across the seven networks. Regarding examined metrics, independent component analysis with dual regression, local functional homogeneity and functional homotopic connectivity were the three mostly reliable RFMRI metrics. These observations can guide the use of reliable metrics and further improvement of test-retest reliability for other metics in functional connectomics. We discuss the main issues with low reliability related to sub-optimal design and the choice of data processing options. Future research should use large-sample test-retest data to rectify both the within-subject and between-subject variability of RFMRI measurements and accelerate the application of functional connectomics. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to carry out an intended action in the future. PM is consistently found to be impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia may represent conditions along a continuum, and share similar neurocognitive and genetic architecture. This study aimed to compare the nature and extent of PM impairment in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Participants were 38 out-patients with schizophrenia and 40 out-patients with bipolar disorder in an early psychosis intervention programme, and 37 healthy controls. Time-, event- and activity-based PMs were assessed using a dual-task laboratory paradigm. Self-reported PM performance was gauged using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with intelligence quotient (IQ) and education included as covariates, was used to examine group difference on various types of PM. Repeated measures of ANCOVA were used to examine the group × PM type interaction effect. Correspondence between laboratory and self-reported PM measures was examined using correlational analysis. The group × PM type interaction effect was not significant, but the main effect of group was significant. Patients with schizophrenia and patients with bipolar disorder both performed more poorly than healthy participants in PM. The two clinical groups did not significantly differ in PM. Laboratory and self-reported PM measures did not correlate significantly with each other. Patients with bipolar disorder shared a similar PM impairment with those with schizophrenia. Findings of this study extended the similarity in neurocognitive impairments between the two psychiatric disorders to PM.

Chen K.,CAS Institute of Psychology
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Attention is intrinsic to our perceptual representations of sensory inputs. Best characterized in the visual domain, it is typically depicted as a spotlight moving over a saliency map that topographically encodes strengths of visual features and feedback modulations over the visual scene. By introducing smells to two well-established attentional paradigms, the dot-probe and the visual-search paradigms, we find that a smell reflexively directs attention to the congruent visual image and facilitates visual search of that image without the mediation of visual imagery. Furthermore, such effect is independent of, and can override, top-down bias. We thus propose that smell quality acts as an object feature whose presence enhances the perceptual saliency of that object, thereby guiding the spotlight of visual attention. Our discoveries provide robust empirical evidence for a multimodal saliency map that weighs not only visual but also olfactory inputs.

Chen J.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Li X.,CAS Institute of Psychology
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | Year: 2013

Rumination is an important cognitive vulnerability for adolescent and adult depression. However, little is known about the aetiological origins of rumination, as well as its association with depression. Adolescent rumination (self-report) and depressive symptoms (self- and parent-report) were assessed in 674 pairs of same-gender Chinese adolescent twins (11-17 years of age). Females accounted for 53.7 % of the sample. There were significant correlations between self-reported rumination and self-reported depression (r = 0.41), as well as parent-reported adolescent depression (r = 0.22). Genetic influences were significant and modest on all three measures, ranging from 24 % to 42 %. The three measures were also significantly influenced by shared environment, ranging from 20 % to 28 %, and non-shared environmental factors, ranging from 30 % to 56 %. Moreover, the genetic correlations between rumination and depression were significant (within-rater: r g = 0.99; cross-rater: r g = 0.59) and largely accounted for the phenotypic correlations (within-rater: 68 %; cross-rater: 77 %), while non-shared environmental correlations were also significant (within-rater: r e = 0.26; cross-rater: r e = 0.12) and accounted for the remainder of the phenotypic correlations (within-rater: 32 %; cross-rater: 23 %). The shared environmental correlations were non-significant. No significant gender and age differences were found in aetiological models. These findings suggest that rumination may be an endophenotype reflecting genetic risk for depression. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Zhang Y.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Ho S.M.Y.,City University of Hong Kong
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

This study investigated the psychological reactions of survivors of the 512 Wenchuan earthquake in China and the risk factors associated with those reactions. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Type D Scale-14 (DS14), a self-developed trauma experience questionniare, and a demographic questionnaire were administered to 956 earthquake survivors (389 males and 567 females) in Mianzhu, one of the cities most affected by the earthquake. The results showed that postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms affected 84.8% of survivors one to two months after the earthquake. Significant risk factors associated with PTSD symptoms included: (1) being female; (2) older age; (3) higher exposure to traumatic events during the earthquake; and (4) negative affect in Type-D personality. © 2011 Zhang, Ho.

Wei G.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Luo J.,CAS Institute of Psychology
Brain Research | Year: 2010

Numerous studies provide evidence that motor skill acquisition is associated with dynamic changes in cortical and subcortical regions. Athletes are a professional population who are engaged in extensive motor training for long periods. However, the neural substrates of extreme level motor performance have not been clarified. We used kinesthetic imagery task to induce the mental representation of sport expert's extraordinary performance in view of the shared substrates of executing movement and motor imagery. For the first time, we compared, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the pattern of cerebral activations in 12 professional divers and 12 normal people without extensive training, during imagery of professional skills and imagery of simple motor skills. The sport experts showed significant activation in the parahippocampus during imagery of professional skills relative to the novices, which might reflect the representation adapted to experience-related motor tasks. No significant difference was found between experts and novices when they imagined simple motor skills. These results indicated the experts might utilize their kinesthetic imagery more efficiently than novices, but only for the activity in which they had expertise. The sport experts also demonstrated more focused activation patterns in prefrontal areas in both of imagery tasks, which may be relevant to higher order of motor control during motor imagery. Moreover, this study suggested that the brains of sport experts could be regarded as the ideal subjects to explore the relationship between cerebral plasticity and learning of complex motor skills. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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