CAS Institute of Psychology
CAS Institute of Psychology
Ohio State Innovation Foundation, CAS Institute of Psychology, Adaptive Sensory Technology, Llc and Beijing Juehua Medical Technology Co. | Date: 2017-03-08
In one embodiment, the invention provides the use of an interocular inhibition procedure (IIP) for discriminating between anisometropic amblyopia and myopia, two disorders commonly confused in visual examination without proper optical correction. The inventors identified that opaque and translucent patching over the fellow (or untested) eye would result in different contrast sensitivities in the amblyopic (or tested) eye. In another embodiment, the invention provides a procedure for identifying amblyopia and myopia / hyperopia through the use of a pinhole aperture. Also disclosed are apparatus utilized in the procedures.
Ohio State Innovation Foundation, CAS Institute of Psychology, Adaptive Sensory Technology, Llc and Beijing Juehua Medical Technology Co. | Date: 2015-04-30
In one embodiment, the invention provides the use of an interocular inhibition procedure (IIP) for discriminating between anisometropic amblyopia and myopia, two disorders commonly confused in visual examination without proper optical correction. The inventors identified that opaque and translucent patching over the fellow (or untested) eye would result in different contrast sensitivities in the amblyopic (or tested) eye. In another embodiment, the invention provides a procedure for identifying amblyopia and myopia/hyperopia through the use of a pinhole aperture. Also disclosed are apparatus utilized in the procedures.
Hu L.,CAS Institute of Psychology |
Hu L.,University College London |
Hu L.,Southwest University |
Iannetti G.D.,University College London
Trends in Neurosciences | Year: 2016
How perception of pain emerges from neural activity is largely unknown. Identifying a neural 'pain signature' and deriving a way to predict perceived pain from brain activity would have enormous basic and clinical implications. Researchers are increasingly turning to functional brain imaging, often applying machine-learning algorithms to infer that pain perception occurred. Yet, such sophisticated analyses are fraught with interpretive difficulties. Here, we highlight some common and troublesome problems in the literature, and suggest methods to ensure researchers draw accurate conclusions from their results. Since functional brain imaging is increasingly finding practical applications with real-world consequences, it is critical to interpret brain scans accurately, because decisions based on neural data will only be as good as the science behind them. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Zhang T.,University of California at Davis |
Zhang T.,CAS Institute of Psychology |
Britten K.H.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2011
The ventral intraparietal area (VIP) of the macaque monkey brain is a multimodal area with visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and eye movement-related responses. The visual responses are strongly directional, and VIP neurons respond well to complex optic flow patterns similar to those found during self-motion. To test the hypothesis that visual responses in VIP directly contribute to the perception of self-motion direction, we used electrical microstimulation to perturb activity in VIP while animals performed a two-alternative heading discrimination task. Microstimulation systematically biased monkeys' choices in a direction consistent with neuronal preferences at the stimulation site, and these effects were larger while the animal was making smooth pursuit eye movements. From these results, we conclude that VIP is causally involved in the perception of self-motion from visual cues and that this involvement is gated by ongoing motor behavior. Copyright © 2011 the authors.
Pan Y.,CAS Institute of Psychology
Behavioural brain research | Year: 2013
Although increasing evidence demonstrates that both chronic stressors and inflammatory immune activation contribute to pathophysiology and behavioral alterations associated with major depression, little is known about the interaction effect of central inflammatory immune activation and stress on depressive-like behavior. Our previous work has shown that 14-day chronic forced swim stress induces significant depressive-like behavior. The present investigation assessed whether pro-inflammatory cytokine and anti-inflammatory cytokine challenges have differential interaction effect on depressive-like behavior induced by chronic forced swim stress in rats. The pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune challenges were achieved respectively by central administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pro-inflammatory cytokine inducer, and interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine. It was found that either central LPS treatment alone or chronic forced swim stress alone significantly induced depressive-like behavior, including reduced body weight gain, reduced saccharin preference and reduced locomotor activity. However, there was no significant synergistic or additive effect of central LPS treatment and stress on depressive-like behavior. LPS treatment did not exacerbate the depressive-like behavior induced by forced swim stress. Nevertheless, IL-10 reversed depressive-like behavior induced by forced swim stress, a finding indicating that IL-10 has antidepressant effect on behavioral depression induced by stress. The present findings provide new insight into the complexity of the immunity-inflammation hypothesis of depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang L.,CAS Institute of Psychology |
Chu M.,Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2013
The present study investigated whether and how beat gesture (small baton-like hand movements used to emphasize information in speech) influences semantic processing as well as its interaction with pitch accent during speech comprehension. Event-related potentials were recorded as participants watched videos of a person gesturing and speaking simultaneously. The critical words in the spoken sentences were accompanied by a beat gesture, a control hand movement, or no hand movement, and were expressed either with or without pitch accent. We found that both beat gesture and control hand movement induced smaller negativities in the N400 time window than when no hand movement was presented. The reduced N400s indicate that both beat gesture and control movement facilitated the semantic integration of the critical word into the sentence context. In addition, the words accompanied by beat gesture elicited smaller negativities in the N400 time window than those accompanied by control hand movement over right posterior electrodes, suggesting that beat gesture has a unique role for enhancing semantic processing during speech comprehension. Finally, no interaction was observed between beat gesture and pitch accent, indicating that they affect semantic processing independently. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Li X.,CAS Institute of Psychology |
Yang Y.,CAS Institute of Psychology
Neuropsychologia | Year: 2013
Spoken language comprehension requires immediate integration of different information types, such as semantics, syntax, and prosody. Meanwhile, both the information derived from speech signals and the information retrieved from long-term memory exert their influence on language comprehension immediately. Using EEG (electroencephalogram), the present study investigated how the information retrieved from long-term memory interacts with accentuation during spoken language comprehension. Mini Chinese discourses were used as stimuli, with an interrogative or assertive context sentence preceding the target sentence. The target sentence included one critical word conveying new information. The critical word was either highly expected or lowly expected given the information retrieved from long-term memory. Moreover, the critical word was either consistently accented or inconsistently de-accented. The results revealed that for lowly expected new information, inconsistently de-accented words elicited a larger N400 and larger theta power increases (4-6. Hz) than consistently accented words. In contrast, for the highly expected new information, consistently accented words elicited a larger N400 and larger alpha power decreases (8-14. Hz) than inconsistently de-accented words. The results suggest that, during spoken language comprehension, the effect of accentuation interacted with the information retrieved from long-term memory immediately. Moreover, our results also have important consequences for our understanding of the processing nature of the N400. The N400 amplitude is not only enhanced for incorrect information (new and de-accented word) but also enhanced for correct information (new and accented words). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Zuo X.-N.,CAS Institute of Psychology |
Xing X.-X.,Beijing University of Technology
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2014
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RFMRI) enables researchers to monitor fluctuations in the spontaneous brain activities of thousands of regions in the human brain simultaneously, representing a popular tool for macro-scale functional connectomics to characterize normal brain function, mind-brain associations, and the various disorders. However, the test-retest reliability of RFMRI remains largely unknown. We review previously published papers on the test-retest reliability of voxel-wise metrics and conduct a meta-summary reliability analysis of seven common brain networks. This analysis revealed that the heteromodal associative (default, control, and attention) networks were mostly reliable across the seven networks. Regarding examined metrics, independent component analysis with dual regression, local functional homogeneity and functional homotopic connectivity were the three mostly reliable RFMRI metrics. These observations can guide the use of reliable metrics and further improvement of test-retest reliability for other metics in functional connectomics. We discuss the main issues with low reliability related to sub-optimal design and the choice of data processing options. Future research should use large-sample test-retest data to rectify both the within-subject and between-subject variability of RFMRI measurements and accelerate the application of functional connectomics. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Chan R.C.,CAS Institute of Psychology
Psychological medicine | Year: 2013
Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to carry out an intended action in the future. PM is consistently found to be impaired in individuals with schizophrenia. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia may represent conditions along a continuum, and share similar neurocognitive and genetic architecture. This study aimed to compare the nature and extent of PM impairment in individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Participants were 38 out-patients with schizophrenia and 40 out-patients with bipolar disorder in an early psychosis intervention programme, and 37 healthy controls. Time-, event- and activity-based PMs were assessed using a dual-task laboratory paradigm. Self-reported PM performance was gauged using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with intelligence quotient (IQ) and education included as covariates, was used to examine group difference on various types of PM. Repeated measures of ANCOVA were used to examine the group × PM type interaction effect. Correspondence between laboratory and self-reported PM measures was examined using correlational analysis. The group × PM type interaction effect was not significant, but the main effect of group was significant. Patients with schizophrenia and patients with bipolar disorder both performed more poorly than healthy participants in PM. The two clinical groups did not significantly differ in PM. Laboratory and self-reported PM measures did not correlate significantly with each other. Patients with bipolar disorder shared a similar PM impairment with those with schizophrenia. Findings of this study extended the similarity in neurocognitive impairments between the two psychiatric disorders to PM.
Chen K.,CAS Institute of Psychology
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013
Attention is intrinsic to our perceptual representations of sensory inputs. Best characterized in the visual domain, it is typically depicted as a spotlight moving over a saliency map that topographically encodes strengths of visual features and feedback modulations over the visual scene. By introducing smells to two well-established attentional paradigms, the dot-probe and the visual-search paradigms, we find that a smell reflexively directs attention to the congruent visual image and facilitates visual search of that image without the mediation of visual imagery. Furthermore, such effect is independent of, and can override, top-down bias. We thus propose that smell quality acts as an object feature whose presence enhances the perceptual saliency of that object, thereby guiding the spotlight of visual attention. Our discoveries provide robust empirical evidence for a multimodal saliency map that weighs not only visual but also olfactory inputs.