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Wang W.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology
Plant physiology | Year: 2011

During leaf development, the formation of leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity at the primordium stage is crucial for subsequent leaf expansion. However, little is known about the genetic control from polarity establishment to blade outgrowth. The leaf margin, comprising elongated margin cells and hydathodes, is thought to affect leaf expansion. Here, we show that mutants with defective leaf polarity or with loss of function in the multiple auxin-biosynthetic YUCCA (YUC) genes exhibited a similar abnormal leaf margin and less-expanded leaves. Leaf margins of these mutants contained fewer hydathodes and an increased number of cell patches in which the patterns of epidermal cells resembled those of hydathodes. The previously characterized leaf-abaxialized asymmetric leaves2 (as2) revoluta (rev) and leaf-adaxialized kanadi1 (kan1) kan2 double mutants both produce finger-shaped, hydathode-like protrusions on adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, respectively. YUCs are required for formation of the protrusions, as those produced by as2 rev and kan1 kan2 were absent in the yuc1 yuc2 yuc4 triple mutant background. Expressions of YUC1, YUC2, and YUC4 were spatially regulated in the leaf, being associated with hydathodes in wild-type leaves and protrusions on as2 rev and kan1 kan2 leaves. In addition, inhibition of auxin transport by treatment of seedlings with N-(1-naphtyl) phtalamic acid or disruption of the auxin gradient by transforming plants with the 35S:YUC1 construct also blocked leaf margin development. Collectively, our data show that expressions of YUCs in the leaf respond to the adaxial-abaxial juxtaposition, and that the activities of auxin mediate leaf margin development, which subsequently promotes blade outgrowth. Source

Fu X.-Y.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Extracellular accumulation of recombinant proteins in the culture medium of Escherichia coli is desirable but difficult to obtain. The inner or cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane of E. coli are two barriers for releasing recombinant proteins expressed in the cytoplasm into the culture medium. Even if recombinant proteins have been exported into the periplasm, a space between the outer membrane and the inner membrane, the outer membrane remains the last barrier for their extracellular release. However, when E. coli was cultured in a particular defined medium, recombinant proteins exported into the periplasm could diffuse into the culture medium automatically. If a nonionic detergent, Triton X-100, was added in the medium, recombinant proteins expressed in the cytoplasm could also be released into the culture medium. It was then that extracellular accumulation of recombinant proteins could be obtained by exporting them into the periplasm or releasing them from the cytoplasm with Triton X-100 addition. The tactics described herein provided simple and valuable methods for achieving extracellular production of recombinant proteins in E. coli. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Zhang P.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2013

Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters form a new family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and are widely used by prokaryotes to take up micronutrients from the environment. Instead of using the periplasmic solute-binding proteins (SBPs), ECF transporters use the membrane S proteins for substrate capture and translocation. In this review, we will focus on structural advances that have been made regarding how substrates are recognized by ECF transporters and possible transport mechanisms employed by the ECF transporters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Xia Q.,Southwest University | Li S.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Feng Q.,South China Normal University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2014

Significant progress has been achieved in silkworm (Bombyx mori) research since the last review on this insect was published in this journal in 2005. In this article, we review the new and exciting progress and discoveries that have been made in B. mori during the past 10 years, which include the construction of a fine genome sequence and a genetic variation map, the evolution of genomes, the advent of functional genomics, the genetic basis of silk production, metamorphic development, immune response, and the advances in genetic manipulation. These advances, which were accelerated by the genome sequencing project, have promoted B. mori as a model organism not only for lepidopterans but also for general biology. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews.All rights reserved. Source

Huang X.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology | Han B.,CAS Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology
Nature Genetics | Year: 2012

Three new studies report large-scale resequencing and comparative genomic analysis of diverse maize varieties. The authors conducted a comprehensive characterization of sequence variation in maize genomes and identified signals of selection in maize domestication and breeding. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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