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The immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA) has inhibitory effects on the replication of several viruses. The antiviral effects are through targeting the interaction between viral proteins and host factor cyclophilin A (CypA). CypA has been identified to interact with influenza A virus M1 protein and impair the early stage of the viral life cycle. In order to identify the effect of CsA on influenza virus replication, a CypA-depleted 293T cell line, which was named as 293T/CypA-, was constructed. The cytopathic effect (CPE) assay and the growth curve results indicated that CsA specifically suppressed the influenza A virus replication in a dose-dependent manner. CsA treatment had no effect on the viral genome replication and transcription but selectively suppressed the viral proteins expression. Further studies indicated that CsA could impair the nuclear export of viral mRNA in the absence of CypA. In addition, the antiviral activity of CsA was independent of calcineurin signaling. Finally, CsA could enhance the binding between CypA and M1. The above results suggested that CsA inhibited the replication of influenza A virus through CypA-dependent and -independent pathways. Source


Gossypiumbarbadense is a cultivated cotton species and possesses many desirable traits, including high fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, especially Verticilliumdahliae (a devastating pathogen of Gossypium hirsutum, the main cultivated species). These elite traits are difficult to be introduced into G. hirsutum through classical breeding methods. In addition, genetic transformation of G. barbadense has not been successfully performed. It is therefore important to develop methods for evaluating the function and molecular mechanism of genes in G. barbadense. In this study, we had successfully introduced a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system into three cultivars of G. barbadense by inserting marker genes into the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vector. After we optimized the VIGS conditions, including light intensity, photoperiod, seedling age and Agrobacterium strain, 100% of plants agroinfiltrated with the GaPDS silencing vector showed white colored leaves. Three other marker genes, GaCLA1, GaANS and GaANR, were employed to further test this VIGS system in G. barbadense. The transcript levels of the endogenous genes in the silenced plants were reduced by more than 99% compared to control plants; these plants presented phenotypic symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation. We introduced a fusing sequence fragment of GaPDS and GaANR gene silencing vectors into a single plant, which resulted in both photobleaching and brownish coloration. The extent of silencing in plants agroinfiltrated with fusing two-gene-silencing vector was consistent with plants harboring a single gene silencing vector. The development of this VIGS system should promote analysis of gene function in G. barbadense, and help to contribute desirable traits for breeding of G. barbadense and G. hirsutum. Source


Huang G.,CAS Institute of Microbiology
Virulence | Year: 2012

The human commensal fungus Candida albicans can cause not only superficial infections, but also life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. C. albicans can grow in several morphological forms. The ability to switch between different phenotypic forms has been thought to contribute to its virulence. The yeast-filamentous growth transition and white-opaque switching represent two typical morphological switching systems, which have been intensively studied in C. albicans. The interplay between environmental factors and genes determines the morphology of C. albicans. This review focuses on the regulation of phenotypic changes in this pathogenic organism by external environmental cues and internal genes. Source


Huang G.,CAS Institute of Microbiology
Virulence | Year: 2012

The human commensal fungus Candida albicans can cause not only superficial infections, but also life-threatening disease in immunocompromised individuals. C. albicans can grow in several morphological forms. The ability to switch between different phenotypic forms has been thought to contribute to its virulence. The yeast-filamentous growth transition and white-opaque switching represent two typical morphological switching systems, which have been intensively studied in C. albicans. The interplay between environmental factors and genes determines the morphology of C. albicans. This review focuses on the regulation of phenotypic changes in this pathogenic organism by external environmental cues and internal genes. ©2012 Landes Bioscience. Source


Qi J.,CAS Institute of Microbiology
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2016

The association of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections with microcephaly has resulted in an ongoing public-health emergency. Here we report the crystal structure of a C-terminal fragment of ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), a major host-interaction molecule that functions in flaviviral replication, pathogenesis and immune evasion. Comparison with West Nile and dengue virus NS1 structures reveals conserved features but diverse electrostatic characteristics at host-interaction interfaces, thus possibly implying different modes of flavivirus pathogenesis. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved. Source

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