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Wu M.,CAS Institute of Mechanics
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2010

A general numerical algorithm in the context of finite element scheme is developed to solve Richards' equation, in which a mass-conservative, modified head based scheme (MHB) is proposed to approximate the governing equation, and mass-lumping techniques are used to keep the numerical simulation stable. The MHB scheme is compared with the modified Picard iteration scheme (MPI) in a ponding infiltration example. Although the MHB scheme is a little inferior to the MPI scheme in respect of mass balance, it is superior in convergence character and simplicity. Fully implicit, explicit and geometric average conductivity methods are performed and compared, the first one is superior in simulation accuracy and can use large time-step size, but the others are superior in iteration efficiency. The algorithm works well over a wide variety of problems, such as infiltration fronts, steady-state and transient water tables, and transient seepage faces, as demonstrated by its performance against published experimental data. The algorithm is presented in sufficient detail to facilitate its implementation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang Y.,CAS Institute of Mechanics
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2014

The biochemical adsorption on a resonator sensor can result in the changes of both stiffness and mass. If the effect of stiffness is not considered, the resonator response will be wrongly interpreted. Determining the adsorbate stiffness and mass by the shifts of resonant frequency formulates an inverse problem. The inverse problem is solved by varying the adsorbate thickness and measuring the corresponding shifts of resonant frequencies. With the technique of solving the inverse problem, a micro/nanomechanical resonator can be used to identify what kind of material an adsorbate is, which is more than a mass resonator sensor. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Wei Y.,CAS Institute of Mechanics
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

When materials are deformed plastically via dislocations, a general finding is that samples with smaller dimensions exhibit higher strengths but with very limited amount of plasticity in tension. Here we report that one-dimensional coherent nanostructures with tilted internal twins exhibit anisotropic size effect: their strengths show no apparent change if only their thicknesses reduce, but become stronger as the sample sizes are reduced proportionally. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations show that such nanowires deform primarily through twin migration mediated by partial dislocations in one active slip system, and a large amount of plasticity could be achieved in such nanowires via twin migration. The unique structure shown here is suitable to explore strengthening mechanisms in metals when plasticity is controlled by a single dislocation slip system. This study also suggests a novel approach to modulate strength and ductility in one-dimensional coherent nanostructures. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Liu M.B.,CAS Institute of Mechanics | Liu G.R.,National University of Singapore
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering | Year: 2010

Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is a meshfree particle method based on Lagrangian formulation, and has been widely applied to different areas in engineering and science. This paper presents an overview on the SPH method and its recent developments, including (1) the need for meshfree particle methods, and advantages of SPH, (2) approximation schemes of the conventional SPH method and numerical techniques for deriving SPH formulations for partial differential equations such as the Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, (3) the role of the smoothing kernel functions and a general approach to construct smoothing kernel functions, (4) kernel and particle consistency for the SPH method, and approaches for restoring particle consistency, (5) several important numerical aspects, and (6) some recent applications of SPH. The paper ends with some concluding remarks. © CIMNE, Barcelona, Spain 2010.


Zhu Y.T.,North Carolina State University | Liao X.Z.,University of Sydney | Wu X.L.,CAS Institute of Mechanics
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2012

Nanocrystalline (nc) materials can be defined as solids with grain sizes in the range of 1-100 nm. Contrary to coarse-grained metals, which become more difficult to twin with decreasing grain size, nanocrystalline face-centered-cubic (fcc) metals become easier to twin with decreasing grain size, reaching a maximum twinning probability, and then become more difficult to twin when the grain size decreases further, i.e. exhibiting an inverse grain-size effect on twinning. Molecular dynamics simulations and experimental observations have revealed that the mechanisms of deformation twinning in nanocrystalline metals are different from those in their coarse-grained counterparts. Consequently, there are several types of deformation twins that are observed in nanocrystalline materials, but not in coarse-grained metals. It has also been reported that deformation twinning can be utilized to enhance the strength and ductility of nanocrystalline materials. This paper reviews all aspects of deformation twinning in nanocrystalline metals, including deformation twins observed by molecular dynamics simulations and experiments, twinning mechanisms, factors affecting the twinning, analytical models on the nucleation and growth of deformation twins, interactions between twins and dislocations, and the effects of twins on mechanical and other properties. It is the authors' intention for this review paper to serve not only as a valuable reference for researchers in the field of nanocrystalline metals and alloys, but also as a textbook for the education of graduate students. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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