CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics

Lanzhou, China

CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics

Lanzhou, China
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Zheng C.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | He J.,Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources | Wang Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Wang M.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Huang Z.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

Geobacillus pallidus XS2 and XS3 were isolated from oil contaminated soil samples in Yumen oilfield, China, and were able to produce bioemulsifiers on different hydrocarbons. Biodegradation assays exhibited that approximately 70% of PAH (250. mg/L) or 85% of crude oil (500. mg/L) was removed by the thermophilic bacteria after 20. days. The bioemulsifiers of the two strains were isolated and obtained a productive yield of 4.24 ± 0.08 and 3.82 ± 0.11. g/L, respectively. GPC analysis revealed that the number-average molecular weights (M n) of the two bioemulsifiers were 271,785. Da and 526,369. Da, with PDI values of 1.104 and 1.027, respectively. Chemical composition studies exhibited that the bioemulsifier XS2 consisted of carbohydrates (68.6%), lipids (22.7%) and proteins (8.7%) while the bioemulsifier XS3 was composed by carbohydrates (41.1%), lipids (47.6%) and proteins (11.3%). Emulsification assays approved the effectiveness of bioemulsifiers over a wide range of temperature, pH and salinity. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Zheng C.,Sinopec | Wang M.,Tianjin University of Science and Technology | Wang M.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology | Wang Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Huang Z.,CAS Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Oil extraction from oil sludge with biosurfactant formulas was optimized by a Taguchi orthogonal array design of L16 (4 5) with five main factors, including biosurfactant type (surfactin, lichenysin, rhamnolipid and emulsan), biosurfactant concentration, pH, salinity and solvent. Oil recoveries obtained with the sixteen batch washing experiments with the selected levels of each factor were processed with Design Expert/SPSS and a specific combination of factors with a predicted oil recovery of 76.81% was obtained. The predicted optimal biosurfactant formula of 2.0g/L rhamnolipid, pH 12.0, 10g/L NaCl, and 5.0g/L n-butanol were validated by a washing experiment that yielded an oil recovery of 74.55%, which was 27.28% higher than the grand average oil recovery of the whole experiment design. Based on the optimum biosurfactant formula, the oil extraction process followed first-order kinetics as the washing rate constant and final oil recovery increased with temperature. These results will be informative and meaningful for the design of oil sludge treatment in industrial application. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Bai Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Meng Z.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Jin Z.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Northwestern Geology | Year: 2017

After carrying out the LA - ICP - MS zircon U - Pb dating with high precision, the results show that the granodiorite in the Xiangyang coal mine was formed at 445∼438Ma, which belongs to the Late Ordovician epoch. Geochemical analysis shows that these rocks belong to high potassium calcium alkaline series, and the major elements have the geochemical characteristics of high silicon, rich alkali and calcium. The light rare earth elements are enriched while the heavy rare earth elements are relatively depleted, with weak negative Eu anomalies, displaying the fractional crystallization of plagioclase in the magma evolution. The largeion lithophile elements (such as Rb, K, La and Th) are relatively enriched, while the high field strength elements (including U, Nb, Ta, Ti, P and Sr) are relatively depleted. The discriminant result of source region suggests that these rocks belong to S-type granite. The ratios of trace elements, such as Nb/U (6.19 ∼9. 06), Nb/Ta (9. 8∼11.1), Zr/Hf (31. 5∼34) and La/Nb (2. 29∼4.49), are very close to the average values of basic upper crust, further indicating that these granodiorite were mainly formed by the partial melting of the crust. The Southern Qilian area has experienced very strong magmatic activities in Caledonian period, thus it's believed that the Xiangyang coal mine was formed in the volcano arc environment through analyzing its tectonic environment.

Fei Y.-Q.,CAS Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Zhou X.-J.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Northwestern Geology | Year: 2012

The geological and geochemical characteristics of Xialadi ultrabasic rock of western Qinling were studied systematically in this paper. The results show that the characterization of Xialadi ultrabasic rocks is low SiO 2 Mg rich and alkaline poor, in which metamorphic preexisting rocks belongs to the class of peridotite. The distribution of trace elements and rare earth elements (REE) among various rock types is different. The primary magma of Xialadi ultrabasic rocks originates from upper mantle, whose genetic type belongs to the mantle peridotite of subduction zone. Materials of crustal source and marine carbonate were added to Xialadi ultrabasic magma during its evolution, which resulted in the special geochemical composition characteristics of Xialadi ultramafic rocks with high A1 2O 3 and CaO. In this paper, a preliminary discussion was carried out on the reasons of the differences in geochemical characteristics of Xialadi ultrabasic rocks due to the effects of alteration.

Cen X.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Huang X.,Gansu Nonferrous Engineering Exploration Design Research Institute
Northwestern Geology | Year: 2016

For the tailings stacking dam of the Tongtianping gold deposit in Hui County of Gansu Province, the foundation soil is silty clay with very low strength, its characteristic value of bearing capacity is 80~100kPa. When the initial dam is lower than 20. 0m, it is piled up by silty clay, and then the later fill dam is built on the basis of the initial dam. During the production, the filter dry backfilling materials are used piled up by using the up-stream type tailing damming method. The groundwater of tailings stacking yard is rich. If the buried depth of groundwater level is nearby the earth's surface, the groundwater will expose as the boundary spring. Both the dam foundation soil and the dam body arc the cohesive soils with strong water-holding capacity and poor permeability, both of them have a slope of about 10 and the dam foundation soil is distributed as a slope with angle of 10°. Due to the weak foundation soil has not been processed, the drainage measures of dam foundation and dam body are very poor, leading to the uplift, cracking and collapse deformation damage for the dam (that was operated shortly before) body and dam surface, seriously affecting the normal use of the dam body. Through carrying out the later supplementary investigation, the remedial measures, such as foundation reinforcement and dam drainage, had been putted forward. After nearly two years of monitoring, it's proved that the dam body is steady and its operation is fine.

Wang C.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Wang C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang W.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics | He S.,Ludong University | And 2 more authors.
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2011

Sediment samples collected from the Core Area, Experimental Area and Buffer Area of Yellow River Delta National Nature Reserve (YRDNNR), China, were analyzed by GC-MS in order to determine the degree of hydrocarbon contamination, and identify the sources of aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs. The total petroleum hydrocarbon contents of sediments were relatively low or moderate compared to world-wide locations reported to be chronically contaminated by oil. On the whole, the degree of petroleum contamination in the Core Area and Buffer Area in YRDNNR is weaker than that of the Experimental Area. The potential ecosystem risk assessment indicated that PAHs will not cause immediate adverse biological effects in the YRDNNR. Besides oil-related hydrocarbon inputs in this region, aliphatic hydrocarbon analysis showed the presence of hydrocarbons of terrestrial origin at some sampling sites, characterized by high CPI values. Based on PAH ratios and principal component analysis, pyrolytic input may be a major source of PAHs in YRDNNR sediment, while petrogenic inputs were more apparent at some sites in the Experimental Area due to oil exploration in the Shengli Oilfield. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang C.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | Wang C.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Du J.,China Earthquake Administration | Gao X.,CAS Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research | And 4 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2011

With its close proximity to Shengli Oilfield, China's second largest oilfield, the Yellow River Delta is at high risk for crude oil contamination. The massive oil discharge in oilfield may offer a chance for a natural experiment to investigate compositional changes of oil residues and study the stability of source- and weathering-dependent molecular parameters in oil residues after spills. The results demonstrate that the conventional diagnostic ratios, such as C 2920S/(20S+20R), C 29/C 30H, C 30βα/αβ, C 3122S/(22S+22R), C 2-DBTs/C 2-PHENs, C 3-DBTs/C 3-PHENs, DBT/MCHRY, CHRY/PHENs, are also valid for oil source identification even after extensive weathering of spilled oils in terrestrial environment, although some exceptions were encountered for extensively weathered sample. Moreover, the ratios of selected specific biomarkers (the oleanane index, the gammacerane index) have been developed and assessed as source indicators. Finally, we find that some maturity parameters based on alkyl naphthalenes and methyl phenanthrenes in petroleum geochemistry, such as the methylnaphthalene ratios (TMNr, TeMNr, PMNr), the methylphenanthrene ratios (MPI-1, MPDF), can be applied for the source identification and correlation at their lightly to moderately weathered stage. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Wenhui L.,Sinopec | Tenger,Sinopec | Bo G.,Sinopec | Zhongning Z.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics | And 6 more authors.
Petroleum Exploration and Development | Year: 2010

A comprehensive study on the temporal and spatial distribution of H2S accumulations and the geochemical characteristics of sour gas fields (reservoirs) in the Sichuan Basin has been conducted. It has been followed by a series of carefully designed simulation experiments to elucidate an H2S formation mechanism which is able to predict the distribution of H2S. In some reservoirs, for example P2ch(T1f, have sufficient magnesic SO4 2( and abundant hydrocarbons (palaeo pools) present at sufficiently high temperatures to cause thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). This is the major origin of abundant H2S in large to medium scale gas fields. The formation mechanism of highly sour gas fields (reservoirs) is an in-situ reaction under conditions where sufficient source, enough energy supply, suitable reservoir volume and severely reducing environments occur. However, in some areas or strata, such as slope belts or on continental shelf deposits, or formations such as the Jialingjia and Leikoupo Formations, which are dominantly compact carbonatite and have contemporaneously different facies, it is difficult to form abundant H2S. These formations lack a source of sulphur and energy compared to the P2ch(T1f reef flat facies reservoirs. Even though highly sour natural gas migrating from the P2ch(T1f reservoirs is present, H2S is often consumed due to long distance migration and results in hydrocarbon-rich sweet natural gas. This study predicts that the Heichiliang reef flat facies sedimentary zone in northeastern Sichuan to have highly sour natural gas reservoirs. © 2010 Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina.

Chen Y.-Y.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics | Dai W.-J.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Kuangwu Yanshi/ Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2012

The intermediate volcanic rocks of Dahalajunshan Group in southeast Tekesi County area, west Tianshan, are calc-alkaline volcanic rocks,most of them are basaltic andesite,andesite, with minor trachyandesite. These rocks are high in silicon and sodium,low in titanium and potassium, w(SiO 2) ≥54. 18%, w(TiO 2) ≥0.89%, alkali w(K 2O + Na 2O) ≥4. 19%, Na 2O/K 2O ≥ 1. 40%. Other significant features are enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (Rb,Th,K, etc.) and LREE, depleted high field strength elements(Nb,Ti,etc.)and HREE, obvious Eu negative anomaly(δEu = 0. 39 ∼ 0. 78), similar to the island arc calc-alkaline volcanic rocks. Volcanic rocks are high in La/Nb and Ba/Nb values(1. 74 ∼ 2. 77, 24. 03 ∼ 59. 43), low in La/Ba values (0.038 ∼ 0.092). Th/Ta,Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf values are 2.06 ∼ 17.38,3.35 ∼ 13.41 and 37.94 ∼ 45. 02 respectively. Geochemical characteristics show that the magmatic source is of enriched mantle magma source, which was resulted from by crust contamination and metasomatic process by fluid or melted materials from subduction residual plate.

Dai W.-J.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics
Kuangwu Yanshi/ Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology | Year: 2011

Niuquanzi ophiolite mélange is part of the Xichangjin-Niuquanzi- Hongliuhe Ophiolite belt which was truncated by Aerjin strike slip fault. Niuquanzi ophiolite mélange is composed of gabbro,diabase,basic lava and abyssal-bathyal sea deposition. Based on the petrochemical analysis, the ophiolites are characteristic of both island arc tholeiite and oceanic rift basalt with a tectonic background of back-arc basin setting. Isotopic dating indicates that the ophiolite initiated in mid-late Ordovician, and formed mainly in Silurian Period. According to above data, combined with characteristics of regional geological structures,it is considered that there was a paleo-oceanic basin and paleo-collision belt in this area.

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