CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Date: 2015-02-13
The TaNAC2 gene can promote uptake and utilization of nitrogen in a plant. A method for improving the uptake, transport and/or assimilation of nitrogen element in the plant includes: introducing a gene encoding a protein represented by SEQ ID NO:4 into a primary plant to obtain a transgenic plant. Compared to the primary plant, the uptake, transport and/or assimilation of the nitrogen element in the transgenic plant are improved. The method provides advantages in that: the TaNAC2 gene, as a nitrate nitrogen responsive regulatory factor, which can regulate the expression of a series of genes in nitrogen element uptake pathways of wheat, greatly promotes the study of the metabolism and utilization of the nitrogen element in a plant; and it is possible to improve the assimilation efficiency of nitrogen element by increasing the expression of TaNAC2, thereby reducing fertilizer application and increasing yield.
Voytas D.F.,University of Minnesota |
Gao C.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology
PLoS Biology | Year: 2014
Plant agriculture is poised at a technological inflection point. Recent advances in genome engineering make it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in living cells, providing unprecedented control over a plant's genetic material. Potential future crops derived through genome engineering include those that better withstand pests, that have enhanced nutritional value, and that are able to grow on marginal lands. In many instances, crops with such traits will be created by altering only a few nucleotides among the billions that comprise plant genomes. As such, and with the appropriate regulatory structures in place, crops created through genome engineering might prove to be more acceptable to the public than plants that carry foreign DNA in their genomes. Public perception and the performance of the engineered crop varieties will determine the extent to which this powerful technology contributes towards securing the world's food supply. © 2014 Voytas, Gao.
Dou D.,Nanjing Agricultural University |
Zhou J.-M.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology
Cell Host and Microbe | Year: 2012
Phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes invade and colonize their host plants through distinct routes. These pathogens secrete diverse groups of effector proteins that aid infection and establishment of different parasitic lifestyles. Despite this diversity, a comparison of different plant-pathogen systems has revealed remarkable similarities in the host immune pathways targeted by effectors from distinct pathogen groups. Immune signaling pathways mediated by pattern recognition receptors, phytohormone homeostasis or signaling, defenses associated with host secretory pathways and pathogen penetrations, and plant cell death represent some of the key processes controlling disease resistance against diverse pathogens. These immune pathways are targeted by effectors that carry a wide range of biochemical functions and are secreted by completely different pathogen groups, suggesting that these pathways are a common battleground encountered by many plant pathogens. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Li H.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology
Plant physiology | Year: 2011
We have previously shown that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RING-H2 E3 ligase RHA2a positively regulates abscisic acid (ABA) signaling during seed germination and postgerminative growth. Here, we report that RHA2b, the closest homolog of RHA2a, is also an active E3 ligase and plays an important role in ABA signaling. We show that RHA2b expression is induced by ABA and that overexpression of RHA2b leads to ABA-associated phenotypes such as ABA hypersensitivity in seed germination and seedling growth, enhanced stomatal closure, reduced water loss, and, therefore, increased drought tolerance. On the contrary, the rha2b-1 mutant shows ABA-insensitive phenotypes and reduced drought tolerance. We provide evidence showing that a rha2a rha2b-1 double mutant generally enhances ABA insensitivity of rha2b-1 in seed germination, seedling growth, and stomatal closure, suggesting that RHA2b and RHA2a act redundantly in regulating ABA responses. Genetic analyses support that, like RHA2a, the RHA2b action in ABA signaling is downstream of a protein phosphatase 2C, ABA-INSENSITIVE2 (ABI2), and in parallel with that of the ABI transcription factors ABI3/4/5. We speculate that RHA2b and RHA2a may have redundant yet distinguishable functions in the regulation of ABA responses.
Zuo J.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology |
Li J.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology
Annual Review of Genetics | Year: 2014
Grain size is one of the most important factors determining rice yield. As a quantitative trait, grain size is predominantly and tightly controlled by genetic factors. Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain size have been molecularly identified and characterized. These QTLs may act in independent genetic pathways and, along with other identified genes for grain size, are mainly involved in the signaling pathways mediated by proteasomal degradation, phytohormones, and G proteins to regulate cell proliferation and cell elongation. Many of these QTLs and genes have been strongly selected for enhanced rice productivity during domestication and breeding. These findings have paved new ways for understanding the molecular basis of grain size and have substantial implications for genetic improvement of crops. © 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Feng F.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology |
Zhou J.-M.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2012
Effectors secreted by the bacterial type III system play a central role in the interaction between Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and their host plants. Recent advances in the effector studies have helped cementing several key concepts concerning bacterial pathogenesis, plant immunity, and plant-pathogen co-evolution. Type III effectors use a variety of biochemical mechanisms to target specific host proteins or DNA for pathogenesis. The identifications of their host targets led to the identification of novel components of plant innate immune system. Key modules of plant immune signaling pathways such as immune receptor complexes and MAPK cascades have emerged as a major battle ground for host-pathogen adaptation. These modules are attacked by multiple type III effectors, and some components of these modules have evolved to actively sense the effectors and trigger immunity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Date: 2014-08-08
Methods and compositions that affect yield and other agronomic characteristics in plants are disclosed. Methods of transgenic modulation and marker-assisted breeding methods improve grain size and grain yield in rice are also disclosed. Increased expression of BG1 results in increased grain size and yield.
Syngenta, CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Date: 2016-07-28
The present invention provides methods of increasing nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) in a transgenic plant comprising the introduction of a nucleic acid encoding a dep1 polypeptide into a plant to produce a transgenic plant that expresses the nucleic acid to produce the dep1 polypeptide, thereby resulting in an increased NUE as compared with a control plant. Also provided are methods of increasing NUE in a plant comprising reducing the amount and/or activity of a DEP1 polypeptide.
CAS Institute of Zoology, CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Date: 2015-06-03
The present invention provides a method for nondestructive detection of a miRNA expression in a cell and determination of a cell type and state, and specifically provides a method for determining a cell type and state according to a miRNA expression in a cell culture medium. The method comprises: culturing cells of different types, collecting a culture medium of the cells, extracting RNA in the culture medium, performing inverse transcription on the RNA, detecting miRNA in the cell culture medium by using a fluorescent quantitative PCR method, and determining the type and state of the detected cell according to a relationship between miRNA expressions of different cell types and states and the detected miRNA expression. The method of the present invention proves for the first time that the miRNA expression in the culture medium can be detected to determine the type and state of a cell, comprising the pluripotency level of a stem cell and the state of a cell obtained through transdifferentiation, which avoids causing damages to the cell and is especially suitable for experimental and clinical applications where the number of cells is limited.
CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Date: 2014-07-30
This invention relates to a plant E3 ubiquitin ligase (termed DA2) which acts synergistically with DA1 to control seed and organ size. Methods of increasing plant yield are provided that comprise reducing the expression or activity of DA2 in a plant that is deficient in DA1 expression or activity. Plants with increased yield and methods of producing such plants are also provided.