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Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is considered an indicator pathogen of AIDS, and the endemicity and clinical features of P. marneffei have been described. While, how the co-infection of P. marneffei exacerbate deterioration of the immune response remains poorly understood. Here we isolated P. marneffei from the cutaneous lesions of AIDS patients and analyzed its effects on HIV-1-dendritic cells (DCs) interaction. We demonstrated that the monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) could be activated by both thermally dimorphic forms of P. marneffei for significantly promoting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4(+) T cells, while these activated MDDCs were refractory to HIV-1 infection. Mechanistically, P. marneffei-activated MDDCs endocytosed large amounts of HIV-1 and sequestrated the internalized viruses into tetrapasnin CD81(+) compartments potentially for proteolysis escaping. The activated MDDCs increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and facilitated the formation of DC-T-cell conjunctions, where much more viruses were recruited. Moreover, we found that P. marneffei-stimulated MDDCs efficiently activated resting CD4(+) T cells and induced more susceptible targets for viral infection. Our findings demonstrate that DC function and its interaction with HIV-1 have been modulated by opportunistic pathogens such as P. marneffei for viral dissemination and infection amplification, highlighting the importance of understanding DC-HIV-1 interaction for viral immunopathogenesis elucidation. Source


Zhang X.,CAS Institut Pasteur of Shanghai
Cellular and Molecular Immunology | Year: 2013

Innate-like B cells (ILBs) are heterogeneous populations of unconventional B cells with innate sensing and responding properties. ILBs in mice are composed of B1 cells, marginal zone (MZ) B cells and other related B cells. ILBs maintain natural IgM levels at steady state, and after innate activation, they can rapidly acquire immune regulatory activities through the secretion of natural IgM and IL-10. Thus, ILBs constitute an important source of IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs), which have been shown to play critical roles in autoimmunity, inflammation and infection. The present review highlights the latest advances in the field of ILBs and focuses on their regulatory functions. Understanding the regulatory activities of ILBs and their underlying mechanisms could open new avenues in manipulating their functions in inflammatory, infectious and other relevant diseases. © 2013 CSI and USTC. All rights reserved. Source


Patent
CAS Institut Pasteur of Shanghai | Date: 2013-01-21

A method for the treatment and/or the prevention of a disease or a symptom related to dysfunction of regulatory T cell immunomodulation includes administering to a subject in need thereof compositions that regulate regulatory T cell immunomodulatory function, in which the compositions may be prepared by contacting starting materials with phosphorylation pathway-related factors, the agonists or the antagonists thereof. The phosphorylation pathway-related factors are selected from: proto-oncogene protein PIM1 and the coding sequence thereof. The regulation is achieved by regulating the activity of regulators of regulatory T cells selected from the group: FOXP3, IL-2, GITR, CTLA4, and a combination thereof.


Patent
CAS Institut Pasteur of Shanghai | Date: 2012-03-19

The present invention relates to methods and applications of using


Ren H.,CAS Institut Pasteur of Shanghai | Zhou P.,CAS Institut Pasteur of Shanghai
Current Opinion in Immunology | Year: 2016

The threat of influenza A and B variants via antigenic drift and emerging novel influenza A and B strains in the human population via antigenic shift has spurred research efforts to improve upon current seasonal influenza vaccines. In recent years, a wave of novel technological breakthroughs has lead to the identification of many broadly anti-influenza hemagglutinin (HA) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and the elucidation of the conserved epitopes recognized by these mAbs in both the head and the stem of HA as well as the mechanisms of inhibition. These discoveries along with an improved understanding of how the immune system responds to influenza infection and vaccination has spurred great efforts on stem-based cross-subtype ('universal') vaccine design as well as RBS-based HA subtype-specific vaccine design. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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