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Feng S.,University of South China | Cao Z.,University of South China | Wang X.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer | Year: 2013

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a cytosolic ligand-activated transcription factor, belongs to the member of bHLH/PAS family of heterodimeric transcriptional regulators and is widely expressed in a variety of animal species and humans. Recent animal and human data suggested that AHR is involved in various signaling pathways critical to cell normal homeostasis, which covers multiple aspects of physiology, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, gene regulation, cell motility and migration, inflammation and others. Dysregulation of these physiological processes is known to contribute to events such as tumor initiation, promotion, and progression. Increasing epidemiological and experimental animal data provided substantial support for an association between abnormal AHR function and cancer, implicating AHR may be a novel drug-interfering target for cancers. The proposed underlying mechanisms of its actions in cancer involved multiple aspects, (a) inhibiting the functional expression of the key anti-oncogenes (such as p53 and BRCA1), (b) promoting stem cells transforming and angiogenesis, (c) altering cell survival, proliferation and differentiation by influencing the physiologic processes of cell-cycle, apoptosis, cell contact-inhibition, metabolism and remodel of extracellular matrix, and cell-matrix interaction, (d) cross-talking with the signaling pathways of estrogen receptor and inflammation. This review aims to provide a brief overview of recent investigations into the role of AHR and the underlying mechanisms of its actions in cancer, which were explored by the new technologies emerging in recent years. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Chen H.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Ore Geology Reviews | Year: 2013

Although the sources of the ore metals remain problematic in most Iron-oxide Cu and Au (IOCG) deposits, external sulphur, either from surficial basinal brines and seawater (e.g., Central Andean and Carajás deposits) or from formation water and metamorphic fluids (e.g., the Cloncurry deposits), or introduced by magmatic assimilation of metasedimentary units (e.g., Phalaborwa), has been documented in many major Cu-rich IOCG centres. However, only the evaporite-sourced fluids yield diagnostically high δ34S values (i.e., >10‰), while sedimentary formation water or metamorphic fluids commonly have lower values and are less clearly distinguishable from magmatic fluids, as in the Cloncurry deposits in which the involvement of external fluids is revealed by other evidence, such as noble gas isotopes. On the basis of these arguments, IOCG deposits could be redefined as a clan of Cu (AuAgU) deposits containing abundant hypogene iron oxide (magnetite and/or hematite), in which externally-derived sulphur probably plays an important role for the Cu (AuAgU) mineralization. In this definition, all "Kiruna-type" magnetite deposits, hydrothermal iron deposits (e.g., skarn Fe deposits) and magnetite-rich porphyry CuAu and skarn CuAu deposits are excluded. Two subtypes of IOCG deposits are recognized on the basis of the predominant iron oxide directly associated with the Cu (Au) mineralization, whether magnetite or hematite. Neither magnetite- nor hematite-rich IOCG deposits show any preference for specific host rocks, and both range in age from Neoarchean to Pleistocene, within a broad tectonic environment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Yang J.F.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes | Year: 2011

The distribution and occurrence of 15 antibiotics in surface water of the Pearl River System (Liuxi River, Shijing River and Zhujiang River) and effluents of four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated in two sampling events representing wet season and dry season by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-MS/MS) in positive ionization mode. Only eight antibiotics (sulfadiazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, roxithromycin, erythromycin-HO and norfloxacin) were detected in the water samples of the three rivers and the effluents. The detection frequencies and levels of antibiotics in the dry season were higher than those in the wet season. This could be attributed to the dilution effects in the wet season and relatively lower temperature in the dry season under which antibiotics could persist for a longer period. The levels of the detected antibiotics in different sites are generally in a decreasing order as follows: Shijing River ≥WWTP effluent ≥Zhujiang River ≥ Liuxi River. Risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients showed that only erythromycin-HO and roxithromycin detected in the Pearl Rivers might have adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Source

Xu Y.-G.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta | Year: 2014

Major, trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of basalts emplaced during 90-40Ma in the North and Northeast China are compiled in this review, with aims of constraining their petrogenesis, and by inference the evolution of the North China Craton during the late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. Three major components are identified in magma source, including depleted component I and II, and an enriched component. The depleted component I, which is characterized by relatively low 87Sr/86Sr (<0.7030), moderate 206Pb/204Pb (18.2), moderately high εNd (~4), high Eu/Eu* (>1.1) and HIMU-like trace element characteristics, is most likely derived from gabbroic cumulate of the oceanic crust. The depleted component II, which distinguishes itself by its high εNd (~8) and moderate 87Sr/86Sr (~0.7038), is probably derived from a sub-lithospheric ambient mantle. The enriched component has low εNd (2-3), high 87Sr/86Sr (>0.7065), low 206Pb/204Pb (17), excess Sr, Rb, Ba and a deficiency of Zr and Hf relative to the REE. This component is likely from the basaltic portion of the oceanic crust, which is variably altered by seawater and contains minor sediments. Comparison with experimental melts and trace element modeling suggest that these recycled oceanic components may be in form of garnet pyroxenite/eclogite. These components are young (<0.5Ga) and show an Indian-MORB isotopic character. Given the share of this isotopic affinity by the extinct Izanaghi-Pacific plate, currently stagnated within the mantle transition zone, we propose that it ultimately comes from the subducted Pacific slab.Eu/Eu* and 87Sr/86Sr of the 90-40Ma magmas increases and decreases, respectively, with decreasing emplacement age, mirroring a change in magma source from upper to lower parts of subducted oceanic crust. Such secular trends are created by dynamic melting of a heterogeneous mantle containing recycled oceanic crust. Due to different melting temperature of the upper and lower ocean crust and progressive thinning of the lithosphere, the more fertile basaltic crustal component is preferentially sampled during the early stage of volcanism, whereas the more depleted gabbroic lower crust and lithospheric mantle components are preferentially sampled during a late stage. This model is consistent with a protracted destruction process of the lithosphere beneath eastern China. The presence of significant recycled oceanic crust components in the 90-40Ma basalts highlights the influence of Pacific subduction on the deep processes in the North China Craton, which can be traced back at least to the late Cretaceous. This, along with the conjugation of crustal deformation pattern in this region with the movement of the Pacific plate, makes the Pacific subduction as a potential trigger of the destruction of the North China Craton. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Cheng H.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2010

Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the volatile compounds contributing to the aroma and flavor of yogurt. This review outlines the production of the major flavor compounds in yogurt fermentation and the analysis techniques, both instrumental and sensory, for quantifying the volatile compounds in yogurt. The volatile compounds that have been identified in plain yogurt are summarized, with the few key aroma compounds described in detail. Most flavor compounds in yogurt are produced from lipolysis of milkfat and microbiological transformations of lactose and citrate. More than 100 volatiles, including carbonyl compounds, alcohols, acids, esters, hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, sulfur-containing compounds, and heterocyclic compounds, are found in yogurt at low to trace concentrations. Besides lactic acid, acetaldehyde, diacetyl, acetoin, acetone, and 2-butanone contribute most to the typical aroma and flavor of yogurt. Extended storage of yogurt causes off-flavor development, which is mainly attributed to the production of undesired aldehydes and fatty acids during lipid oxidation. Further work on studying the volatile flavor compounds-matrix interactions, flavor release mechanisms, and the synergistic effect of flavor compounds, and on correlating the sensory properties of yogurt with the compositions of volatile flavor compounds are needed to fully elucidate yogurt aroma and flavor. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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