Li Y.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion |
Xu J.,North China Electrical Power University
Microfluidics and Nanofluidics | Year: 2010
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a powerful tool to investigate the nanoscale fluid flow. In this article, we review the methods and the applications of MD simulation in liquid flows in nanochannels. For pressure-driven flows, we focus on the fundamental research and the rationality of the model hypotheses. For electrokinetic-driven flows and the thermal-driven flows, we concentrate on the principle of generating liquid motion. The slip boundary condition is one of the marked differences between the macro- and micro-scale flows and the nanoscale flows. In this article, we review the parameters controlling the degree of boundary slip and the new findings. MD simulation is based on the Newton's second law to simulate the particles' interactions and consists of several important processing methods, such as the thermal wall model, the cut-off radius, and the initial condition. Therefore, we also reviewed the recent improvement in these key methods to make the MD simulation more rational and efficient. Finally, we summarized the important discoveries in this research field and proposed some worthwhile future research directions. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.
Zhu J.Y.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Zhu J.Y.,University of Wisconsin - Madison |
Zhuang X.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Zhuang X.S.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science | Year: 2012
There is a lack of comprehensive information in the retrievable literature on pilot scale process and energy data using promising process technologies and commercially scalable and available capital equipment for lignocellulosic biomass biorefining. This study conducted a comprehensive review of the energy efficiency of selected sugar platform biorefinery process concepts for biofuel production from lignocelluloses. The process data from approximately a dozen studies that represent state-of-the-art in cellulosic biofuel production concepts, along with literature energy input data for agriculture operations, were analyzed to provide estimates of net energy production. It was found that proper allocation of energy input for fertilizer and pesticides to lignocellulosic biomass and major agriculture or forestry products, such as corn and lumber in corn farming and lumber plantations, respectively, were critical. The significant discrepancies in literature data suggest studies are needed to determine energy inputs for fuel in farming and farm machinery. Increasing solids loading in pretreatment to at least 25% is critical to reducing energy input in a biorefinery. Post thermo-chemical pretreatment size reduction approach should be adopted for energy efficient woody biomass processing. When appropriate pretreatment technologies are used, woody biomass can be processed as efficiently as herbaceous biomass and agricultural residues. Net energy output for cellulosic ethanol was estimated to range approximately from -500-2000 MJ/ton biomass (HHV base); indicating that the energy input/output ratio is approximately 1:1 for cellulosic ethanol. However, net energy can reach approximately 4000-7000 MJ/ton of biomass when energy from lignin is included.
CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion | Date: 2013-05-27
A method for manufacturing an all-glass solar heat collecting tube without a tail pipe. The bottom of one end of an inner glass tube plated by a selective absorbing coating layer is rounded, the other end is connected to a first glass outer tube. The bottom of one end of a second glass outer tube is rounded and the other end is flared. The connected inner glass tube/first glass outer tube is inserted into the second glass outer tube. A gap is formed between the first glass outer tube and the second glass outer tube to serve as an air exhausting channel. The first glass outer tube is inserted into the flared opening of the second glass outer tube. The contact point between the first glass outer tube and the second glass outer tube is heated to frit seal and butt joint.
CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion | Date: 2015-03-31
CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion | Date: 2013-09-04
The present invention discloses a process for preparing a functionalized choline chloride ionic liquid as defined in formula (I), and thereof use in an electrochemical energy storage device, as an electrolyte solution or an additive for a lithium ion battery and a supercapacitor. The ionic liquid electrolyte material has better biocompatibility, flame retardance, high ionic conductivity, low viscosity, and wide electrochemical window. wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of: (CH2CH(CH2)n), CN(CH2)n, or R23Si; R2 is selected from CH3(CH2)m, n is an integer selected from 1 to 3, m is an integer selected from 0 to 2; or one of R2 is (CH3)3SiO. Anion A in Formula I is selected from the group consisting of: Cl, Br, I, BF4, NO3, SO42, CF3COO, CF3SO3, (CF3SO2)2N, PF6, BF2C2O4, or B(C2O4)2.