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Dong L.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion | Dong L.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversation | Zhenhong Y.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion | Yongming S.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2010

An innovative municipal solid waste separation technology - water separation was developed in China recently. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of anaerobic digestion from water sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (WS-OFMSW) to methane. A group of bench-scale (35 L) mesophilic (30 ± 2 °C) batch anaerobic digestions were carried out with three total solids in reactor (TSr = 16.0%, 13.5% and 11.0%). The biodegradability of WS-OFMSW with VS/TS of 61.6% was better than that of mechanically sorted OFMSW but still poor than that of source sorted OFMSW. No inhibitions of metal ions, volatile fatty acids and ammonia on anaerobic digestion were found. The reactors with TSr 16.0%, 13.5% and 11.0% achieved methane yield of 273, 283 and 314 L/kgVS and VS removal rate of 26.1%, 35.8% and 41.8%, respectively. The average methane content in biogas was about 66% for all reactors. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhu Z.,Nankai University | Hong M.,Nankai University | Guo D.,Nankai University | Shi J.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2014

The cathode capacity of common lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using inorganic electrodes and liquid electrolytes must be further improved. Alternatively, all-solid-state lithium batteries comprising the electrode of organic compounds can offer much higher capacity. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-solid-state lithium battery based on organic pillar[5]quinone (C35H20O10) cathode and composite polymer electrolyte (CPE). The poly(methacrylate) (PMA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LiClO4-3 wt % SiO2 CPE has an optimum ionic conductivity of 0.26 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Furthermore, pillar[5]quinine cathode in all-solid-state battery rendered an average operation voltage of ∼2.6 V and a high initial capacity of 418 mAh g-1 with a stable cyclability (94.7% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate) through the reversible redox reactions of enolate/quinonid carbonyl groups, showing favorable prospect for the device application with high capacity. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Cathles L.M.,Cornell University | Su Z.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversation | Chen D.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
Marine and Petroleum Geology | Year: 2010

Pockmarks form where fluids discharge through seafloor sediments rapidly enough to make them quick, and are common where gas is present in near-seafloor sediments. This paper investigates how gas might lead to pockmark formation. The process is envisioned as follows: a capillary seal traps gas beneath a fine-grained sediment layer or layers, perhaps layers whose pores have been reduced in size by hydrate crystallization. Gas accumulates until its pressure is sufficient for gas to invade the seal. The seal then fails completely (a unique aspect of capillary seals), releasing a large fraction of the accumulated gas into an upward-propagating gas chimney, which displaces water like a piston as it rises. Near the seafloor the water flow causes the sediments to become "quick" (i.e., liquefied) in the sense that grain-to-grain contact is lost and the grains are suspended dynamically by the upward flow. The quickened sediment is removed by ocean-bottom currents, and a pockmark is formed. Equations that approximately describe this gas-piston-water-drive show that deformation of the sediments above the chimney and water flow fast enough to quicken the sediments begins when the gas chimney reaches half way from the base of its source gas pocket to the seafloor. For uniform near-surface sediment permeability, this is a buoyancy control, not a permeability control. The rate the gas chimney grows depends on sediment permeability and the ratio of the depth below seafloor of the top of the gas pocket to the thickness of the gas pocket at the time of seal failure. Plausible estimates of these parameters suggest gas chimneys at Blake Ridge could reach the seafloor in less than a decade or more than a century, depending mainly on the permeability of the deforming near-surface sediments. Since these become quick before gas is expelled, gas venting will not provide a useful warning of the seafloor instabilities that are related to pockmark formation. However, detecting gas chimney growth might be a useful risk predictor. Any area underlain by a gas chimney that extends half way or more to the surface should be avoided. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Xu C.-G.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversation | Xu C.-G.,CAS Guangzhou Center for Gas Hydrate Research | Li X.-S.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversation | Li X.-S.,CAS Guangzhou Center for Gas Hydrate Research
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Hydrate-based CO2 separation and capture from gas mixtures containing CO2 has gained growing attention as a new technology for gas separation, and it is of significance for reducing anthropogenic CO 2 emissions. Previous studies of the technology include the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydrate formation/dissociation, hydrate formation additives, analytical methods, separation and capture progress, equipment and applications. Presently, the technology is still in the experimental research stages, and there are few reports of industrial application. This review examines research progress in the hydrate formation process and analytical methods with a special focus on laboratory studies, including the knowledge developed in analog computation, laboratory experiments, and industrial simulation. By comparing the various studies, we propose original comments and suggestions on further developing hydrate-based CO2 separation and capture technology. © 2014 The Partner Organisations.

Yan X.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversation | Zhang L.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversation
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry | Year: 2013

Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) counter electrodes, doped with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and acetylene black as binding and conductivity promoting agent, were prepared by a simple mixing method for dye-sensitized solar cell. The electrochemical properties of the electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and Tafel polarization curves. Using PEG dopant, the electrocatalytic activity of PEDOT:PSS electrode was much improved, and further improved by adding a small amount of conducting acetylene black (0.2 wt%). The DSSC cells, using the PEDOT:PSS electrode with PEG (5 wt%) dopant and the composite electrode with PEG (5 wt%)/acetylene black, exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 3.57 and 4.39 %, comparable with 4.50 % of the commonly used Pt electrode under the same experimental conditions. These results demonstrate that PEG-modified PEDOT:PSS counter electrode is promising to replace the expensive Pt for low cost DSSC, especially to meet the large-scale fabrication demands. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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