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Liu F.,CAS East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Pang S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Mitochondrial DNA | Year: 2014

Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt is an invasive canopy-forming brown alga, expanding its presence from Northeast Asia to North America and Europe. The complete mitochondrial genome of S. muticum is characterized as a circular molecule of 34,720 bp. The overall AT content of S. muticum mitogenome is 63.41%. This mitogenome contains 65 genes typically found in brown algae, including 3 ribosomal RNA genes, 25 transfer RNA genes, 35 protein-coding genes, and 2 conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The gene order of mitogenome for S. muticum is identical to that for Sargassum horneri, Fucus vesiculosus and Desmarestia viridis. Phylogenetic analyses based on 35 protein-coding genes reveal that S. muticum has a close evolutionary relationship with S. horneri and a distant relationship with Dictyota dichotoma, supporting current taxonomic systems. The present investigation provides new molecular data for studies of S. muticum population diversity as well as comparative genomics in the Phaeophyceae. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted Source

Zhang H.,CAS East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Journal of Applied Ichthyology | Year: 2013

Summary: The structure and temporal variations of the fish community in the intertidal estuarine zone of shallow mud areas have been poorly studied in China. This paper analyses the diel, semi-lunar and seasonal patterns of fish assemblages in the Yangtze estuary in 2006. Fish were collected by consecutive day and night samplings using tide-stow-nets deployed parallel to each other in three stations. A total of 56 fish species belonging to 21 families was caught during the study period. The family Cyprinidae dominated with 25 species. Freshwater fish species were the important dominant commercial fishery species and well represented with five species (sharpbelly Hemiculter bleekeri, goldfish Carassius auratus, bream Parabramis pekinensis, likely-bream Pseudobrama simony, and glossy yellow catfish Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the three stations. Juvenile fishes dominated the fish community, comprising 93.9% in station 1 and 96.6% in station 2 of the total abundance. The number of fish species in day tides was slightly lower than those in night tides in spring and summer, but the opposite in other seasons. In neap tides, the numbers and abundance of fish species were both lower than those in the spring tides. Fish abundance was lowest in winter, increasing during spring and summer (March-September) in both stations 1 and 2, with obviously large fluctuations in each season. The pattern of habitat selection of fishes could effectively decrease the food competition of intraspecies or interspecies and favour the growth and nursing of young fishes. These findings indicate that the intertidal zones in the estuary may serve as important nursery areas for fish communities. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Ma Z.,Xiamen University | Ma Z.,CAS East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Gao K.,Xiamen University
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2010

Previous studies showed that exposure of Arthrospira spp. spirals to natural levels of solar radiation in the presence of UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm) led to the breakage of its spiral structure. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been explored. Here, we showed that associated accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulted in the spiral breakage by oxidizing the lipids of sheath or cell membrane in Arthospira platensis, and presence of UVR brought about higher accumulation level of the ROS. Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were inhibited by high levels of solar PAR, addition of UVR led to further inhibition of CAT activity. High levels of ROS also decreased the content of photosynthetic pigments, damaged photosystem II (PSII) and inhibited the photosynthesis and growth. It is concluded that both UV and high PAR levels could generate higher amounts of ROS, which decreased the photosynthetic performances and led to spiral breakage of A. platensis. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Gao K.,Xiamen University | Zheng Y.,CAS East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
Global Change Biology | Year: 2010

Previous studies have shown that increasing atmospheric CO 2 concentrations affect calcification in some planktonic and macroalgal calcifiers due to the changed carbonate chemistry of seawater. However, little is known regarding how calcifying algae respond to solar UV radiation (UVR, UVA+UVB, 280-400 nm). UVR may act synergistically, antagonistically or independently with ocean acidification (high CO 2/low pH of seawater) to affect their calcification processes. We cultured the articulated coralline alga Corallina sessilis Yendo at 380 ppmv (low) and 1000 ppmv (high) CO 2 levels while exposing the alga to solar radiation treatments with or without UVR. The presence of UVR inhibited the growth, photosynthetic O 2 evolution and calcification rates by13%, 6% and 3% in the low and by 47%, 20% and 8% in the high CO 2 concentrations, respectively, reflecting a synergistic effect of CO 2 enrichment with UVR. UVR induced significant decline of pH in the CO 2-enriched cultures. The contents of key photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins decreased, while UV-absorptivity increased under the high pCO 2/low pH condition. Nevertheless, UV-induced inhibition of photosynthesis increased when the ratio of particulate inorganic carbon/particulate organic carbon decreased under the influence of CO 2-acidified seawater, suggesting that the calcified layer played a UV-protective role. Both UVA and UVB negatively impacted photosynthesis and calcification, but the inhibition caused by UVB was about 2.5-2.6 times that caused by UVA. The results imply that coralline algae suffer from more damage caused by UVB as they calcify less and less with progressing ocean acidification. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Li C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Riethoven J.-J.M.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Riethoven J.-J.M.,CAS East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2010

Background: Exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) markers have three advantages over anonymous genomic sequences in studying evolution of natural populations. First, the universal primers designed in exon regions can be applied across a broad taxonomic range. Second, the homology of EPIC-amplified sequences can be easily determined by comparing either their exon or intron portion depending on the genetic distance between the taxa. Third, having both the exon and intron fragments could help in examining genetic variation at the intraspecific and interspecific level simultaneously, particularly helpful when studying species complex. However, the paucity of EPIC markers has hindered multilocus studies using nuclear gene sequences, particularly in teleost fishes. Results. We introduce a bioinformatics pipeline for developing EPIC markers by comparing the whole genome sequences between two or more species. By applying this approach on five teleost fishes whose genomes were available in the Ensembl database http://www.ensembl.org, we identified 210 EPIC markers that have single-copy and conserved exon regions with identity greater than 85% among the five teleost fishes. We tested 12 randomly chosen EPIC markers in nine teleost species having a wide phylogenetic range. The success rate of amplifying and sequencing those markers varied from 44% to 100% in different species. We analyzed the exon sequences of the 12 EPIC markers from 13 teleosts. The resulting phylogeny contains many traditionally well-supported clades, indicating the usefulness of the exon portion of EPIC markers in reconstructing species phylogeny, in addition to the value of the intron portion of EPIC markers in interrogating the population history. Conclusions. This study illustrated an effective approach to develop EPIC markers in a taxonomic group, where two or more genome sequences are available. The markers identified could be amplified across a broad taxonomic range of teleost fishes. The phylogenetic utility of individual markers varied according to intron size and amplifiability. The bioinformatics pipelines developed are readily adapted to other taxonomic groups. © 2010 Li et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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