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Zhang L.-B.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Zhang L.-B.,Missouri Botanical Garden
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012

For the Flora of China treatment of the fern genus Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae), the following nine new combinations and three new names are proposed. Two varieties were raised to the species level. In addition, P. kangdingense is validated and Cyrtogonellum caducum, Cyrtomidictyum conjunctum and Polystichum deltodon var. henryi are lectotypified. © 2012 Magnolia Press. Source

Sun S.,Nanjing University | Sun S.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Frelich L.E.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2011

1.We hypothesize that flowering phenology correlates with plant height growth pattern and that the pattern is associated with functional traits including maximum plant height (Hmax), RGR, stem tissue mass density (SD), hollow ratio (proportion of central hollow of stem cross-sectional area) and leaf mass per area (LMA) in grassland herbaceous species. 2.We investigated plant height growth trajectories and flower phenology, and measured LMA, SD and hollow ratio for 25 herbaceous species including 20 dicot forb species and five monocot species in an old-field grassland of New England, USA. Hmax, RGR, T10 and T90 (Julian day when plant height was 10% and 90%Hmax respectively) were derived from a logistic function for each species and were analysed in relation to LMA and SD. 3.Hmax was positively correlated with T10, T90 and flowering onset time (Julian day when the first 10% of flowers were blossoming) across species and across evolutionary-correlated divergences. Early growing and flowering species were shorter than late ones, and species reaching Hmax earlier flowered earlier than their counterparts. 4.There was a positive relationship between T90 and RGR, in which early growing species were usually at mid-to-high levels of RGR, while late-growing ones had widely varied RGR. A similar relationship was found between flowering onset time and RGR. RGR was significantly negatively correlated with SD and LMA but positively with hollow ratio, as indicated by correlation analysis and phylogenetically independent comparative analysis. 5.Based on the above results, we propose that herbaceous species have two major dimensions of height growth strategies (early vs. late and fast vs. slow growth), collectively resulting in three extreme cases (early and fast, late and slow, and late and fast). Different height growth trajectories resulting from these strategies may reduce asymmetric competition among co-existing species in dense grasslands. 6.Synthesis. Flowering phenology and height growth patterns are significantly associated with functional traits such as RGR, LMA and hollow ratio in herbaceous grassland species. The difference in height growth trajectories and associated functional traits may allow species coexistence possibly at both plant and consumer trophic levels. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society. Source

Zhang L.-B.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology | Zhang L.-B.,Missouri Botanical Garden
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012

The fern genus Dryopsis (Dryopteridaceae) is characterized by the presence of multicellular hairs and costal and costular grooves closed near their bases. Following a recent molecular analysis the monophyletic Dryopsis is nested in a paraphyletic Dryopteris and therefore should be viewed as part of an expanded Dryopteris. The current paper treats Dryopsis as a section of D. subg. Erythrovariae because both of these two taxa have bullate scales and importantly Dryopsis has been resolved as sister to D. subg. Erythrovariae sect. Erythrovariae. Twenty-two species are here recognized in D. sect. Dryopsis. Included in this treatment are nine new combinations, names and statuses, and five names are lectotypified. The present study further located and cited types of an additional 37 related names, many of which have been poorly to science. A key and distributional information of every species recognized is given and related nomenclatural issues are discussed. The nine new names, combinations and statuses include Dryopteris sect. Dryopsis, D. dulongensis, D. leiboensis, D. nidus, D. nushanensis, D. submariformis, D. wantsingshanica, D. crassirachis and D. × fauriei. The following five names are lectotypified: Ctenitis silaensis, C. tibetica, Dryopteris aureovestita, D. mariformis, and Polystichum transmorrisonensis. © 2012 Magnolia Press. Source

Rosewarne G.M.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology
TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik | Year: 2013

Over thirty publications during the last 10 years have identified more than 140 QTLs for stripe rust resistance in wheat. It is likely that many of these QTLs are identical genes that have been spread through plant breeding into diverse backgrounds through phenotypic selection under stripe rust epidemics. Allelism testing can be used to differentiate genes in similar locations but in different genetic backgrounds; however, this is problematic for QTL studies where multiple loci segregate from any one parent. This review utilizes consensus maps to illustrate important genomic regions that have had effects against stripe rust in wheat, and although this methodology cannot distinguish alleles from closely linked genes, it does highlight the extent of genetic diversity for this trait and identifies the most valuable loci and the parents possessing them for utilization in breeding programs. With the advent of cheaper, high throughput genotyping technologies, it is envisioned that there will be many more publications in the near future describing ever more QTLs. This review sets the scene for the coming influx of data and will quickly enable researchers to identify new loci in their given populations. Source

Wei W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ji J.-X.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Biology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

Direct access: The title reaction has been developed under mild reaction conditions (see scheme; DMSO=dimethyl sulfoxide). This reaction can be effectively scaled up and offers not only a green and attractive approach to β-ketophosphonates, but also a useful example of direct incorporation of an oxygen atom from dioxygen into organic frameworks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

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