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Keswick, United Kingdom

This article is a biography of a wealthy experimental physicist, artist & musician, who was one of the founders of the Röntgen Society and of the Institute of Physics. He was also the United Kingdom's first hospital physicist (at the Cancer Hospital, London, now the Royal Marsden Hospital). This biography is a journey into a long vanished world of science and it brings into focus several famous scientists of the years before World War I. Because of the scientific reputations & wealth of his father & grandfather, the latter being involved in the laying in 1857 of the first transatlantic telegraph cable, Charles Phillips gained entry at an early age to the scientific establishment of his era: a feat which otherwise would have been impossible. When he died in 1945 he left in excess of 1.25 million to the Institute of Physics.

Marie Curie's January 1904 article in the Century Magazine is republished in full. In addition, the preceeding article in the Century Magazine which is also about radium, written Ernest Merritt, Professor of Physics at Cornell University, is commented upon. Biographical material on Merritt is also included. He was one of the first in the USA {in February 1896} to make an X-ray photograph of a hand. This radiograph is contained in his 1904 paper. Commentary is also given on X-ray pictures made in the USA in January/February 1896 and the physicists, electrical engineers and other professions who took these shadowgraphs/skiagraphs/X-ray pictures are listed with references from journals such as Science and Electrical Engineer.

This article follows an earlier Nowotwory review [1] which was published in 1999. The bibliography of selected books and reports in the Chernobyl literature, which is not directly available on the Internet, is referenced in chronological order and will provide a useful source on how the post-accident knowledge has progressed in the 25 years after April 1986. The causes of the accident are summarised as is the survival of the 203 persons who suffered acute radiation syndrome (ARS) at the time of the accident and bone marrow transplant results. Selected recent journal papers on thyroid cancer, leukaemia and retrospective dosimetry techniques are also included. © Polskie Towarzystwo Onkologiczne ISSN 0029-540X www.nowotwory.viamedica.pl.

This article follows an earlier Nowotwory publication [1] on anecdotal data relating to tobacco smoking. It concentrates pipe & cigarette smoking in World War I and relates to the soldiers of many countries. My impetus for the review, was a recent exhibition in Harrogate's Mercer Art Gallery in the United Kingdom, which was entitled Brangwyn's War: Posters of the First World War, [2, 3]. Frank Brangwyn who is largely unknown, except to art & photography specialists, was born in Bruges, Belgium in 1867, as Guillaume François Brangwyn, and died in 1956. Tobacco is mentioned in WWI ephemera not only in posters, postcards, lithographs and paintings, but also finds an appearance in a popular marching song, in the gift [Princess Mary's tin box] given to all British soldiers & sailors for Christmas 1914 by Princess Mary, the only daughter of King George V and Queen Mary, and in the story of the clergyman Woodbine Willie. This brief review is also appropriate because of the centenary of the outbreak of WWI in 1914. © Polskie Towarzystwo Onkologiczne.

This short review celebrates the discovery of X-rays 120 years ago. It describes the experiments and observations made by Röntgen in Würzburg, which led to the discovery; illustrates examples of Röntgen's radiographs which were referred to in his first paper {they were not published in 1896 but were only supplied to some of his physicist colleagues throughout the world} Eine Neue Art von Strahlen; and references the only three papers Röntgen ever wrote on X-rays. What Röntgen thought of his great discovery can be found from the only two interviews ever published: in April 1896 by the American journalist H J W Dam of McClure'sMagazine; and in April 1898 by the British manufacturer of X-ray apparatus and a leading member of the Röntgen Society in London, Adolf Isenthal, who visited Röntgen on behalf of the Society. Röntgen only gave one public lecture. This was on 23 January 1896 at the Physikalisch-medizinischen Gesellschaft in Würzburg. © Polskie Towarzystwo Onkologiczne.

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