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Park Falls, WI, United States

Carthage College is a four-year private liberal arts college affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Situated in Kenosha, Wisconsin midway between Chicago, Illinois and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the campus is an 80 acre arboretum on the shore of Lake Michigan and is home to 2,500 full-time and 900 part-time students.Carthage awards the Bachelor of Arts degree with majors in more than 40 subject areas, and the Master of Education degree.The Carthage faculty comprises nearly 150 scholars, 90 percent of whom hold the doctorate or other terminal degree. Gregory S. Woodward is the president of Carthage, the 22nd in its history. Wikipedia.


Welty D.E.,University of Chicago | Ritchey A.M.,University of Washington | Dahlstrom J.A.,Carthage College | York D.G.,University of Chicago
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

We discuss the absorption due to various constituents of the interstellar medium (ISM) of M82 seen in moderately high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra of SN 2014J. Complex absorption from M82 is seen, at velocities 45 ≲ v LSR ≲ 260 km s-1, for Na I, K I, Ca I, Ca II, CH, CH+, and CN; many of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are also detected. Comparisons of the column densities of the atomic and molecular species and the equivalent widths of the DIBs reveal both similarities and differences in relative abundances, compared to trends seen in the ISM of our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. Of the 10 relatively strong DIBs considered here, 6 (including λ5780.5) have strengths within ±20% of the mean values seen in the local Galactic ISM, for comparable N(K I); 2 are weaker by 20%-45% and 2 (including λ5797.1) are stronger by 25%-40%. Weaker than "expected" DIBs (relative to N(K I), N(Na I), and E(B-V)) in some Galactic sight lines and toward several other extragalactic supernovae appear to be associated with strong CN absorption and/or significant molecular fractions. While the N(CH)/N(K I) and N(CN)/N(CH) ratios seen toward SN 2014J are similar to those found in the local Galactic ISM, the combination of high N(CH+)/N(CH) and high W(5797.1)/W(5780.5) ratios has not been seen elsewhere. The centroids of many of the M82 DIBs are shifted relative to the envelope of the K I profile - likely due to component-to-component variations in W(DIB)/N(K I) that may reflect the molecular content of the individual components. We compare estimates for the host galaxy reddening E(B-V) and visual extinction A V derived from the various interstellar species with the values estimated from optical and near-IR photometry of SN 2014J. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..


The type series of Albertosaurus sarcophagus, consisting of a type (CMN 5600) and a paratype (CMN 5601) is inadequately established, since it has not been demonstrated that the specimens represent the same taxon. This problem has arisen because the original diagnostic characters have a wider distribution among Tyrannosauridae or they are in error, and both specimens consist of incomplete and damaged skulls. The type series was studied to test for the presence of diagnostic characters in the type specimen and, if so, to provide a rationale for referring the paratype to the taxon. Of the bones shared between the skulls, only five could be compared. One character, the enlarged posterior pneumatic recess of the palatine, is shared between the two specimens; this condition differs from the situation seen in other tyrannosaurids. This character provided the rationale for assessing the identity of the specimens collected from the Albertosaurus bonebed, from which one palatine was collected that exhibits the diagnostic recess. Isolated cranial bones from the bonebed were compared with those preserved in the type series to evaluate their referral to A. sarcophagus; additional characters shared between the type series and the specimens from the bonebed were identified in the maxilla, lacrimal, and palatine. This evidence supports the hypothesis that A. sarcophagus is the tyrannosaurid preserved in the bonebed. A hypothesis of the principal growth changes in the skull in A. sarcophagus, which includes the type series and bonebed material, is proposed.


Tobiason D.M.,Northwestern University | Tobiason D.M.,Carthage College | Seifert H.S.,Northwestern University
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2010

The physical properties of most bacterial genomes are largely unexplored. We have previously demonstrated that the strict human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae is polyploid, carrying an average of three chromosome copies per cell and only maintaining one pair of replication forks per chromosome (D. M. Tobiason and H. S. Seifert, PLos Biol. 4:1069-1078, 2006). We are following up this initial report to test several predictions of the polyploidy model of gonococcal chromosome organization. We demonstrate that the N. gonorrhoeae chromosomes exist solely as monomers and not covalently linked dimers, and in agreement with the monomer status, we show that distinct nucleoid regions can be detected by electron microscopy. Two different approaches to isolate heterozygous N. gonorrhoeae resulted in the formation of merodiploids, showing that even with more than one chromosome copy, these bacteria are genetically haploid. We show that the closely related bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is also polyploid, while the commensal organism Neisseria lactamica maintains chromosomes in single copy. We conclude that the pathogenic Neisseria strains are homozygous diploids. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Shimizu K.D.,University of South Carolina | Stephenson C.J.,Carthage College
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2010

The sensor array format has proved an effective method of transforming sensors of modest selectivity into highly selective and discriminating sensors. The primary challenge in developing new sensor arrays is collecting together a sufficient number of recognition elements that possess different binding affinities for the analytes of interest. In this regard, the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as the recognition elements in sensor arrays has a number of unique advantages. MIPs can be rapidly and inexpensively prepared with different selectivities and tuned with different selectivity patterns via the choice of templates in the imprinting process. The array format also helps compensate for the low selectivities and high cross-reactivities of MIP sensors. These attractive qualities of MIP sensor arrays have been demonstrated in recent examples, which have established the viability and generality of the approach. In particular, the versatility of the imprinting process enables MIP sensor arrays to be tailored to specific analytes. MIP sensor arrays have also shown surprisingly broad utility, as even analytes that were not used as templates in the imprinting process can be effectively discriminated. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Cameron E.L.,Carthage College | Doty R.L.,University of Pennsylvania
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology | Year: 2013

Objective: Olfaction is important for nutrition, safety, and quality of life. Detecting smell loss in young children can be difficult, since many children with olfactory deficits do not recognize their problem and may even pretend to smell. The short attention span of some young children precludes testing with longer standardized olfactory tests. Currently there is a dearth of pediatric smell tests. In this study we evaluated the performance of 152 children and young adults on a game-like rotating " Smell Wheel" odor identification test. This forced-choice test, which can be self-administered, was designed to capture the child's imagination and to provide a standardized test measure with odors known to young children using a minimum number of trials. Method: Thirty 4-5-year olds (10 female), 62 6-7-year olds (17 female), 30 10-11-year olds (18 female) and 30 18-19-year olds (15 female) were tested. Analysis of variance was used to assess the influences of sex and age on the test scores. Results: All participants completed the simple and rapid test protocol. Test performance and age-related changes analogous to those obtained using longer tests were observed. Test scores of participants who self-administered the test were equivalent to those for whom the test was administered by the experimenter. Conclusion: Good compliance and olfactory test findings congruent with literature results were obtained using the Smell Wheel, suggesting that this test may be useful in assessing olfactory function in pediatric settings where attentional demands are compromised and test time is limited. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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