Carthage College is a four-year private liberal arts college affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Situated in Kenosha, Wisconsin midway between Chicago, Illinois and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the campus is an 80 acre arboretum on the shore of Lake Michigan and is home to 2,500 full-time and 900 part-time students.Carthage awards the Bachelor of Arts degree with majors in more than 40 subject areas, and the Master of Education degree.The Carthage faculty comprises nearly 150 scholars, 90 percent of whom hold the doctorate or other terminal degree. Gregory S. Woodward is the president of Carthage, the 22nd in its history. Wikipedia.
News Article | March 30, 2017
The Tyrannosaurus rex is a fearsome dinosaur during prehistoric times. Now, a new dinosaur discovery suggests that the T-rex and other tyrannosaurs may have faces covered with highly sensitive scales that gave them the ability to detect the slightest changes such as the presence of a prey attempting to avoid detection. A newly discovered species of the tyrannosaur was found to have remarkably sensitive face. The carnivore Daspletosaurus horneri, or Horner's frightful lizard, would have stood more than 6 feet in height and measured about 29 feet long. Fossil remains belonging to the Daspletosaurus horneri were found in Montana, where these dinosaurs are believed to have lived about 75 million years ago. Markings on the fossilized remains of adults and juveniles of the species revealed that the creature had snout covered with scales that can sense temperature and pressure. In a study, which was published in the journal Scientific Reports on March 30, researchers said that the sensitive facial scales of the creature may have aided its efficiency at hunting and killing prey. Researchers get an idea what prehistoric creatures would have looked like by looking at their skulls and skeletons. Bones, however, can only get researchers so far when reconstructing the appearance. In the case of the newly discovered dinosaur, the soft tissues were not preserved by fossilization so paleontologists teamed up with researchers who study the anatomy of modern day relatives of dinosaur to know what these unpreserved tissues may have looked like. Bird, known as the living dinosaurs, and crocodilian species offered hints on the facial structure of the tyrannosaur. The dinosaur's skull was marked by by many holes so researchers think that the tyrannosaur had many nerves and blood vessels that pass through to the soft tissues that surround it. The feature is comparable to those seen in crocodiles and alligators today. The animals have thousands of sensitive bumps known as integumentary sensory organs around their jaws. Rich supply of blood and nerves to the tissues known as trigemina nerves likewise hint that the facial skin and scales of the dinosaur were very sensitive which may have helped them identify objects. "Given that the foramina are identical in tyrannosaurs, [that] indicates that they had super-sensitive skin as well," said study researcher Thomas Carr, from Carthage College in Wisconsin. Trigeminal nerve has a sensory role in many animals that enable their special "sixth sense," which gives animals special abilities such as the capacity to sense touch and vibrations in water among crocodiles that allow these creatures to sense their prey, detect magnetic fields among birds to help with migration, and electroreception, or the biological ability to perceive natural electrical stimuli, among marine animals that is used to help detect objects and communication. "Given that the sensitive snout is so highly integrated into the day-to-day life of alligators and other crocodylians, there is every reason to suspect the same for tyrannosaurs since they were outfitted with the same equipment," Carr said. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | March 30, 2017
This is an artist's illustration of the dinosaur Daspletosaurus horneri, based on the distribution of texture on the facial bones as described in a new study published in the journal Scientific Reports. According to that research, the face of tyrannosaurs was covered by an extensive mask of large, flat scales, and regions of armor-like skin on the snout, jaws, and ornamental horns. The large horn behind the eye was covered by horn, the same material that makes human fingernails. The small bumps on the flat scales are Integumentary Sensory Organs (ISOs), as are seen in crocodylians that provide extreme tactile sensitivity. The skull is 895 millimeters long. —Before Tyrannosaurus rex terrorized Cretaceous North America, another frightful lizard ruled Montana. Some 75 million years ago, Daspletosaurus horneri, at nearly 30 feet long and over seven feet tall, dominated the landscape. And although D. horneri doesn't have the movie star reputation of its younger, larger cousin, T. rex, its bones could be revolutionary pieces to the puzzle of dinosaur evolution and our picture of the family of tyrannosaurids. "With this dinosaur, we've literally changed the face of tyrannosaurs," paleontologist Thomas Carr says of D. horneri. Dr. Carr and colleagues don't just describe and name the new dinosaur species in a paper published Thursday in the journal Scientific Reports. They also investigated what the face of these beasts may have looked like in life, blood, flesh, scales, and all. And it turns out, these tyrannosaurs may have had patches of armor-like skin across their faces, horns covered in a hard, protective layer much like fingernails or bird beaks, and a highly sensitive snout protected by flat scales. This would have made their snouts a lot like those of dinosaurs' close relatives: crocodilians, Carr and his coauthors say. In crocodiles, sensitive snouts help them sense tiny vibrations in murky waters or measure the temperature of nests. "Crocodiles' faces are as sensitive as human fingertips," Carr, who is director of the Carthage Institute of Paleontology and a professor at Carthage College in Kenosha, Wis., says in a phone interview with The Christian Science Monitor. "Basically their entire face is a fingertip. And we are floating the hypothesis that tyrannosaurs were no different." It's not just the faces of dinosaurs that D. horneri might be changing. It could also help reshape biologists' ideas of how evolution works. That dinosaur was first mentioned in scientific literature in 1992, and eventually was known by the nickname 'Two Medicine tyrannosaurine' among paleontologists for the site where it was found. But D. horneri wasn't officially named as a species until now, 25 years later. The animals' bones had been shelved. When Carr first began to examine the bones, the first task was to find out if this was indeed a new species of dinosaur, or if it was perhaps a transitional species, perhaps between D. horneri's closest relative, Daspletosaurus torosus and T. rex. D. horneri is in fact distinct enough in its morphology to be a new species, Carr and his colleagues say. So they gave it a species name. The name Daspletosaurus horneri, or "Horner’s Frightful Lizard", honors famed American paleontologist John R. "Jack" Horner. But that presents a new dilemma. D. horneri is younger than D. torosus, but the two are quite closely related, likely roamed the same lands (D. torosus was unearthed in Alberta), and lived perhaps just 100,000 years apart – geologically "a blink of an eye," Carr says. Scientists think the most common mechanism for speciation is cladogenesis, in which new species branches off from ancestral species, typically due to geographic isolation or some other force. But Carr and his colleagues think this is a case of anagenesis, when one species simply evolves into another another, without the branching. "That's not easy to show in the fossil record," Lawrence Witmer, a paleontologist at Ohio University who was not involved in the research, says in a phone interview with the Monitor. But Dr. Witmer thinks Carr and his team made the case well. But, cautions Hans-Dieter Sues, curator and chair of vertebrate paleontology at the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution who also was not part of the research team, "The fossil record for most animals, especially dinosaurs, is far too meager to confidently make inferences regarding anagenesis." "The authors’ interpretation is plausible but difficult to test rigorously unless there are much larger samples," he writes in an email to the Monitor. That may be changing, says Philip Currie, a paleontologist at the University of Alberta who was not involved in the research. "There wasn't a lot that could be said before about anagenesis. But now certainly there's enough tyrannosaur specimens that have been found, and especially this group of things from Montana that seem to be different from the ones in Alberta," he says in a phone interview with the Monitor. And "the radiometric dating has improved so much so you can be a lot more specific about what level these things are coming from." And it's not just tyrannosaurs, Dr. Currie says. Some paleontologists are pointing to evidence in the fossils of anagenesis in other families of dinosaurs, like hadrosaurs and ceratopsian dinosaurs. "Most people in recent years have tended to think that cladogenesis is the way that evolution tends to work most of the time," Currie says. But research is beginning to show that that might not be the case. "We think it's worth investigating just how widespread anagenesis might be," Carr says. "We really don't know. To help with that, Carr and his colleagues hope their evidence for suggesting D. horneri might be the product of anagenesis could help shape criteria for other paleontologists to look for in the fossil record. Does D. horneri really suggest that tyrannosaurs had crocodile-like faces? Carr's investigation of tyrannosaur facial flesh began with the bones of D. horneri. The tyrannosaur expert and his team compared the texture on the dinosaur's skull bones with the bones of other animals and found that the roughness on D. horneri matched the roughness on crocodilian snout bones. Because the skin overlying the bones in crocodilians actually changes the texture of the bone itself, Carr says, the scientists can use that as clues to figure out what soft tissue was where on the dinosaur's face. If the parallel between the dinosaurs and crocodilians that Carr and his colleagues draw is correct, this could provide intriguing insight into how the dinosaur's scales develop, suggests Paul Gignac, a paleontologist at Oklahoma State University who was not involved in the research. "Crocodiles grow facial scales by actually cracking their skin, like drying paint, because the underlying bone grows faster than the skin above it," Dr. Gignac explains in an email to the Monitor. "The parallel that Carr and colleagues draw between tyrannosaurs and crocodiles suggests a similar kind of development, which we previously thought was unique to crocodiles and their kin, but that may no longer be the case." Carr and his colleagues took the parallel a step further and, pointing to small holes in the facial bones thought to provide channels for blood vessels and nerves, suggest that D. horneri's snout was as sensitive to touch as crocodilian snouts. They argue that the arrangement of these holes, called foramina, and the texture of the bones are clues that the tyrannosaur had the same kind of specialized sense organs found in crocodilian snout skin called integumentary sensory organs (ISOs). "The authors interpret the openings on the tips of the snout and lower jaw of tyrannosaurs as transmitting nerves that provide sensation, and this make a lot of sense," Gignac says. "The major nerve that allows people to sense touch on their faces ... is the same nerve that allows birds to sense touch and temperature on their beaks and crocodiles to sense pressure waves under water." "This nerve ('the trigeminal nerve') also innervates the whiskers in cats and dogs," he adds. "It is a ubiquitous and important neural component of how vertebrates interact with their environments. So, it seems apropos that evolution would also equip an apex predator – one thought to engage in social, head-biting behaviors, just like crocodiles – with a touch-sensitive snout that would, for example, reinforce cues of social dominance and weakness." But not everyone is sold on this hypothesis. "I question the authors' inferences regarding crocodile-like facial sensitivity in tyrannosaurs," Dr. Sues says. "Lizards have numerous tiny openings in their jaw bones for the passage of nerves and blood vessels that supply the superficial tissues of the snout," as do other animals as well, he points out. "It's certainly not just dinosaurs, certainly not tyrannosaurs and crocodiles" that have these holes in their facial bones, Currie agrees. And, the vastly different lifestyles of the beasts adds to both Sues and Currie's skepticism. "Most crocodilians and their extinct relatives are/were semi-aquatic and have highly specialized receptors for detecting pressure changes in water. (Not surprisingly, certain land-adapted extinct crocs lack these structures.)," Sues says. During the Cretaceous, Montana would have looked a bit different than it does today. A shallow sea called the Western Interior Seaway ran through the middle of North America at the time. "D. horneri lived on the coastal plain, which was forested and carved by an extensive stream system," Carr writes in an email. "The climate would have been comparable to, say, modern-day Mississippi." Carr admits that more research needs to be done. "We really need to get a handle on the distribution, density, and number of these foramina. I think this really needs to be quantified to make the comparisons a bit more rigorous," he says. But ultimately, Carr says, "What we've proposed as a hypothesis, and what will really test it is the discovery of a tyrannosaur with its skin preserved on its face. And I think that day will come, and that will be the test of our hypothesis." "I really hope someone finds a T. rex mummy," he says. "Wouldn't that be great?" [Editor's note: This article was updated to add details about the Cretaceous environment.]
Shimizu K.D.,University of South Carolina |
Stephenson C.J.,Carthage College
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2010
The sensor array format has proved an effective method of transforming sensors of modest selectivity into highly selective and discriminating sensors. The primary challenge in developing new sensor arrays is collecting together a sufficient number of recognition elements that possess different binding affinities for the analytes of interest. In this regard, the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as the recognition elements in sensor arrays has a number of unique advantages. MIPs can be rapidly and inexpensively prepared with different selectivities and tuned with different selectivity patterns via the choice of templates in the imprinting process. The array format also helps compensate for the low selectivities and high cross-reactivities of MIP sensors. These attractive qualities of MIP sensor arrays have been demonstrated in recent examples, which have established the viability and generality of the approach. In particular, the versatility of the imprinting process enables MIP sensor arrays to be tailored to specific analytes. MIP sensor arrays have also shown surprisingly broad utility, as even analytes that were not used as templates in the imprinting process can be effectively discriminated. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Leslie Cameron E.,Carthage College
Chemical Senses | Year: 2014
Hyperosmia is suspected in pregnancy; however, no empirical study using validated measures of olfactory function has clearly confirmed the anecdotal reports of this phenomenon. The goal of the current study is to compare the olfactory sensitivity of pregnant women to that of nonpregnant women and men. All participants rated their sense of smell and pregnant women listed the odors to which they were most sensitive. Detection thresholds were measured using a well-validated protocol. A group of pregnant and nonpregnant women was studied longitudinally using a signal detection procedure designed to detect small differences in sensitivity. Pregnant women, particularly in the 1st trimester, rated their sense of smell to be higher than nonpregnant women and men and indicated many (primarily unpleasant) odors to which they were more sensitive. Women rated their sense of smell higher than men. However, there was no sex difference in thresholds and neither thresholds nor signal detection measures of sensitivity were significantly affected by either sex or pregnancy status. The implications of the lack of relationship between self-report and measures of olfactory sensitivity, particularly in pregnancy, are discussed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: IUSE | Award Amount: 527.31K | Year: 2016
There has been considerable press describing the poor understanding of science held by the general public, and extensive research into the misunderstandings of science held by college students. Attempts to turn science prose into general prose has often failed to hit the mark, and there is a need for science professionals to engage actively in informal communication with the public. Carthage College and the Alda Center for Communicating Science at SUNY-Stonybrook, are partnering with Dartmouth College, Smith College, and the Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC), to create and disseminate tools, methods, and materials that can be utilized by colleges, universities, and informal science education organizations to develop the science communication skills of undergraduate STEM students. The program has been successful in training faculty and graduate students in science communication.
This project will utilize and adapt the existing science communication training programs for graduate students and professional researchers as the basis for creating new tools and training methodologies to prepare undergraduate STEM students in science communication. It is expected that as these students enter the workforce, they will be better at communicating and explaining technical concepts, especially to the lay public, and based on results from the current program will be more likely to pursue careers in science education. The tools and methods developed, when adopted by higher education institutions, will lead to a better-prepared technical workforce, and better understanding of science by the general public. The program will include a study of the effectiveness of the interventions through a longitudinal study of assessment and evaluation data from this effort compared with an expansive five-year data set from prior years of the outreach program.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: RSCH EXPER FOR UNDERGRAD SITES | Award Amount: 38.78K | Year: 2014
An award has been made to Simmons College in Boston, MA and Carthage College in Kenosha, WI to pilot a summer bootcamp in synthetic biology. This award will support training of eight students at each site during the summer of 2015. Students trained in the program
will gain skills in lab research, develop their critical thinking and problem-solving skills, understand the process of science, and be able to communicate their research results to their peers and the general public. Students will have an opportunity to present their results at a national conference. Students from schools with limited opportunities for research and from underrepresented groups are encouraged to apply.
This collaborative proposal will test the effectiveness of intensive instruction in the interdisciplinary area of synthetic biology and ask if the bootcamp prepares students to participate in future research experiences in synthetic biology. The other goal of this proposal is to determine if a dispersed, collaborative effort between two primarily undergraduate institutions can serve as a model for a future REU Sites proposal. The focus of the bootcamp will be lecture, computer lab and wet-lab research to design genetic circuits in living organisms. The PIs participated in a GCAT Synthetic Biology workshop during the summer of 2013 and they will model their program after this workshop. The main research question will be to design organisms that can sense hydrocarbon contaminants in water from different sources. During the four week program, students will participate virtually in activities including workshops on ethics, lab meetings, journal club, and career opportunities, At the end of the program, students will present their research in a poster
and/or oral presentation at the UNC Charlotte Summer Research Symposium.
A common web-based assessment tool used by all REU programs funded by the Division of Biological Infrastructure (Directorate for Biological Sciences) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the training program. Students are required to be tracked after the program and must respond to an automatic email sent via the NSF reporting system. More information is available by contacting either of the PIs, Dr. Jennifer Roecklein-Canfield (at firstname.lastname@example.org) or Dr. Deborah Tobiason (at email@example.com).
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: IUSE | Award Amount: 56.70K | Year: 2016
The PIPELINE Network project will significantly enhance physics education by developing and evaluating methods to incorporate workforce-relevant skills and activities in the student experience. The majority of physics graduates at all degree levels will become scientists and innovators working in the private sector, yet very little of the knowledge they gain while earning their degree specifically prepares them for these roles (for example, few physics programs emphasize real-world applications of scientific concepts, communication skills, or basic business concepts, all of which are important to successful private sector careers). Adding workforce-relevant learning to the discipline will attract a larger and more diverse student body to major in physics, and by extension improve the quality of the future STEM workforce. The PIPELINE project will bring together efforts of six institutions to create and document new approaches to teaching innovation and entrepreneurship in physics which can be shared with the broader community. The project will also advance our understanding of how these practices affect student and faculty attitudes towards innovation and entrepreneurship in physics.
The goals of the PIPELINE network are to build students workforce confidence, improve physics faculty attitudes toward private sector careers, foster better integration of academic and industrial sectors, promote innovation in the physics discipline, and build a framework for wider adoption of physics innovation and entrepreneurship practices. The project will accomplish these by implementing physics innovation and entrepreneurship (PIE) approaches at member institutions during each year of the project, revising approaches between iterations, and finally documenting and disseminating curriculum. Most importantly, PIPELINE will develop surveys and interview protocols which will investigate the link between PIE experiences and student and faculty attitudes about innovation and entrepreneurship, and which can be used by other departments for gauging, monitoring, and improving institutional change around PIE. These research findings and tools will provide insights and utility that go beyond the immediate partner institutions, and live on beyond the duration of the project. PIPELINE will generate a core network of experienced PIE practitioners, a readily accessible body of tested PIE curricula deliberately varied in scope to fit unique needs and challenges of future adopters, and robust insight into the obstacles to PIE implementation and how future adopters might address them.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROGRAMS IN ASTRONOMY | Award Amount: 43.70K | Year: 2014
This award provides renewed support for an astronomy education partnership between Carthage College and the Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC), with the support of Dartmouth College and Rock Point School. The partners will deliver hands-on astronomy and nature education and outreach programs that engage the public, train mentors and docents, and provide experiential learning opportunities for high school and college students. Under the first two years of prior NSF NSF support, Carthage College and the AMC provided astronomy and nature education programming to nearly 3,000 participants in year 1, and 5,000 in year 2. The AMC hosts over 500,000 visitors annually, over half of whom are lower-to-middle-class in income, and approximately 20% are non-white. With renewed NSF funding, the partnership will expand training opportunities, and deliver their programming to an even wider audience.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: SPECIAL PROGRAMS IN ASTRONOMY | Award Amount: 105.64K | Year: 2012
Carthage College and the Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC) have partnered to deliver hands-on astronomy programs to the public, train mentors and docents, and provide experiential learning opportunities for undergraduate astronomy students. The AMC operates trails, outreach centers, and high-mountain huts and delivers experiences in nature and the environment. Through this project we will add astronomy to AMC programming to provide a holistic, integrative picture of the universe to the lay public. Engaging a large, diverse audience with astronomy in a context combining geology, meteorology, biology, and environmental science as part of AMCs ongoing, successful, and well-attended programs, will significantly improve understanding of the science being presented and drive home the close connections that exist between people and the universe. This program is unique because it will be conducted by professional astronomers, will reach large audiences, and will engage undergraduate students as educators and mentors.
This program will impact a large target audience and better prepare a significant body of future scientists. The AMC hosts over 500,000 visitors annually, over half of whom are lower-to-middle-class in income, and approximately 20% are non-white. Special youth-oriented AMC programs are conducted for an annual audience of more than 40,000. The proposed projects will significantly impact the communications and outreach abilities of Carthage physics and astronomy students, who are approximately 60% female and are consistently placed in graduate programs or into technical positions.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: ROBERT NOYCE SCHOLARSHIP PGM | Award Amount: 299.13K | Year: 2014
In this Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program capacity building project the Carthage College Teacher Education Program and the Division of Natural Sciences propose to develop a partnership with Kenosha Unified School District (KUSD) to encourage and prepare the colleges top STEM students to teach science in high needs schools. The outcome of this project will be a new interdisciplinary curriculum component, the Community Alliance for STEM Teaching (CAST), that can engage majors from a number of science disciplines in a community centered effort designed to increase their interest in a STEM teaching career. By engaging a variety of agents (teachers, students, administrators from high needs schools as well as college faculty and students) in the planning, the project will also help strengthen ties between the partners as they explore new ways of interacting. The project will engage such community based organizations as the Root-Pike Watershed Initiative Network, the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, and local municipal water-treatment faciilties.
Several aspects of the project resonate beyond the immediate audience and offer the promise of sustained community involvement in teacher education. Developing a high-profile curricular component in integrated sciences and linking it to pre-service teacher education will significantly enhance the visibility and appeal of the Carthage Teacher Education Program in a community that is embracing modern and reformed STEM-focused curricula. Dissemination of this project will occur through the traditional mechanisms of social media, web presence, print campaigns, and conference presentations, and through the physical presence of monitoring equipment in partner schools, attendance at community forums and city meetings to discuss the monitoring research on air and water, and through informal public education.