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Waukesha, WI, United States

Carroll University is a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Presbyterian Church USA located in Waukesha in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. Carroll opened in 1846, two years before Wisconsin became a state. Before July 1, 2009, Carroll University was known as Carroll College. Wikipedia.


Hampton P.M.,University of Louisiana at Lafayette | Hampton P.M.,Carroll University
Canadian Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

It has been suggested that juveniles have exaggerated morphologies or improved performance to compensate for the disadvantages of being small. As gape-limited predators, juvenile snakes are at a particular disadvantage in terms of prey availability, capture, and ingestion. Prey preference often changes with snake size yet previous studies generally compare only one prey type or relative prey size among age classes. Using Western Ribbon Snakes (Thamnophis proximus (Say in James, 1823)), I investigated the ontogeny of head dimensions and feeding performance on frogs and fish using a range of relative prey sizes. Comparison among snake sizes indicated that smaller individuals had larger relative head sizes than larger conspecifics; however, larger individuals had larger heads. Initial bite position differed between juveniles and adults fed fish but not frogs. Both frogs and fish were generally consumed headfirst by adults and juveniles. Head length did not influence feeding performance in terms of time or pterygoid protractions for snakes fed either fish or frogs. In general, this study suggests that allometry of trophic morphology does not improve feeding performance. Source


Hu C.,Carroll University
ACM Inroads | Year: 2013

Design plays a critical role in the software's quality and long-term success. Yet, software design, as a systematic process, is not sufficiently understood, and its practice in the real world is highly varied. As a result, teaching software design remains a challenge in terms of lacking widely recognized and accepted pedagogy and even learning materials. These factors have played a role in persistently poor student learning achievement. The article makes an attempt to discuss what software design is and explore what teaching of software design may mean and entail. It also reviews published pedagogical studies and reports, composes heuristic suggestions, and searches directions of future research. Source


McKenna J.M.,Carroll University | Parkinson J.A.,University of Strathclyde
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry | Year: 2015

1H NMR spectra from biopolymers give chemical shifts classified according to proton type and often suffer from signal degeneracy. Data from nucleic acids are particularly prone to this failing. Recent developments in proton broadband decoupling techniques with the promise of enhanced resolution at full sensitivity have allowed us to investigate the application of homonuclear band-selective (HOBS) decoupling to the study of small synthetic DNA molecules and to compare these with results from classical and pure shift techniques. Improved signal resolution at full sensitivity in both HOBS-1D 1H and HOBS-2D [1H, 1H] NOESY NMR data is reported for three example small DNA molecules. Comparisons of 1H T1 and integrals of signals from HOBS-1D 1H and HOBS-2D [1H, 1H] NOESY NMR data with those of standard data collection methods are also reported. The results show that homonuclear HOBS-NOESY data are useful for data assignment purposes and have some merit for quantification purposes. In general, we show that resolution and sensitivity enhancement of 1H NMR data for small DNA samples may be achieved without recourse to higher magnetic field strength at full sensitivity in a band-selected manner. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


While the debate over species concepts and criteria affects all organisms on Earth, no group of organisms demonstrates a need for a consilient, universal species concept better than the haplochromine cichlids of Lake Malawi. These fishes, which are the single greatest radiation of vertebrates on the planet, are a daunting taxonomic puzzle for ichthyologists and evolutionary biologists who try to piece together the history and diversity of these fishes. Accordingly, a number of attempts to apply species concepts to these fishes have been attempted, though rarely with a satisfactory outcome. Focusing on the rock-dwelling cichlids, or mbuna, of Lake Malawi, I evaluate the species concepts that have been applied to these fishes, and conclude that the consilient formulation of the Evolutionary Species Concept is the most appropriate species concept to apply to both our current understanding of the mbuna, and future investigations of mbuna speciation and taxonomy. To further demonstrate the applicability and utility of the Evolutionary Species Concept, I provide a closer examination of the genus Labeotropheus, which has been overlooked in recent taxonomic investigations of the mbuna. While most other mbuna genera have had additional, formally described species added to them, if not additional provisionally named species, Labeotropheus has been ignored, largely due to inappropriately applied species concepts and criteria. I provide a possible research program for the Labeotropheus, based on the consilient formulation of the Evolutionary Species Concept, culminating in the description of new species. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source


Gurevich V.V.,Vanderbilt University | Hanson S.M.,Vanderbilt University | Hanson S.M.,Carroll University | Song X.,Vanderbilt University | And 3 more authors.
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research | Year: 2011

Visual arrestin-1 plays a key role in the rapid and reproducible shutoff of rhodopsin signaling. Its highly selective binding to light-activated phosphorylated rhodopsin is an integral part of the functional perfection of rod photoreceptors. Structure-function studies revealed key elements of the sophisticated molecular mechanism ensuring arrestin-1 selectivity and paved the way to the targeted manipulation of the arrestin-1 molecule to design mutants that can compensate for congenital defects in rhodopsin phosphorylation. Arrestin-1 self-association and light-dependent translocation in photoreceptor cells work together to keep a constant supply of active rhodopsin-binding arrestin-1 monomer in the outer segment. Recent discoveries of arrestin-1 interaction with other signaling proteins suggest that it is a much more versatile signaling regulator than previously thought, affecting the function of the synaptic terminals and rod survival. Elucidation of the fine molecular mechanisms of arrestin-1 interactions with rhodopsin and other binding partners is necessary for the comprehensive understanding of rod function and for devising novel molecular tools and therapeutic approaches to the treatment of visual disorders. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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