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Helena, MT, United States

Rowley J.G.,University of Wyoming | Rowley J.G.,Carroll College | Do T.D.,University of Wyoming | Do T.D.,University of California at Santa Barbara | And 3 more authors.
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces | Year: 2014

We report the identification of a semiconducting p-type oxide containing iron, aluminum, and chromium (Fe2-x-yCrxAl yO3) with previously unreported photoelectrolysis activity that was discovered by an undergraduate scientist participating in the Solar Hydrogen Activity research Kit (SHArK) program. The SHArK program is a distributed combinatorial science outreach program designed to provide a simple and inexpensive way for high school and undergraduate students to participate in the search for metal oxide materials that are active for the photoelectrolysis of water. The identified Fe2-x-yCrxAlyO 3 photoelectrolysis material possesses many properties that make it a promising candidate for further optimization for potential application in a photoelectrolysis device. In addition to being composed of earth abundant elements, the FeCrAl oxide material has a band gap of 1.8 eV. Current-potential measurements for Fe2-x-yCrxAlyO3 showed an open circuit photovoltage of nearly 1 V; however, the absorbed photon conversion efficiency for hydrogen evolution was low (2.4 × 10 -4 at 530 nm) albeit without any deposited hydrogen evolution catalyst. X-ray diffraction of the pyrolyzed polycrystalline thin Fe 2-x-yCrxAlyO3 film on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates shows a hexagonal phase (hematite structure) and scanning electron microscope images show morphology consisting of small crystallites. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source


I analyzed larval polytene chromosomes to determine if the hypothesized remnants of an incipient speciation event in the Simulium arcticum complex of black flies previously discovered at the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho existed elsewhere. This population not only had Y chromosomes that defined two members of the S. arcticum complex: S. arcticum sensu stricto and S. saxosum, but also possessed combinations of sex chromosomes of the two that were in genetic equilibrium with respect to all sex chromosome types. The geographic overlap between S. saxosum to the west and S. arcticum s. s. to the east generally runs north and south of the Coeur d'Alene River. Accordingly, I made 37 additional collections in a north-south orientation during 2011-2013. Larvae from 10 of the 37 collections had sex chromosome types identical to those of the previously studied site at the Coeur d'Alene River, thus expanding the area of putative remnant populations. The St. Joe River not only had Y chromosome combinations identical to those of larvae at the Coeur d'Alene but also had a cytotype new to science based on distinct sex chromosomes (X0YIIL-79) in males. These observations: (1) increase the known geographic area of presumed remnant populations of S. arcticum s. s., of S. saxosum and their combinational types to about 3500 km2; (2) suggest that mating trials still occur; and (3) describe the structure and frequency of inversions in two new cytotypes of the S. arcticum complex. © 2014, American Midland Naturalist. Source


Megill J.,Carroll College
Minds and Machines | Year: 2014

Some have claimed that since machines lack emotional "qualia", or conscious experiences of emotion, machine intelligence will fall short of human intelligence. I examine this objection, ultimately finding it unpersuasive. I first discuss recent work on emotion (from cognitive science, neuroscience and philosophy) that suggests that emotion plays various roles in cognition. I then raise the following question: are phenomenal experiences of emotion an essential or necessary component of the performance of these cognitive abilities? I then sharpen the question by distinguishing between four possible positions one might take. I reject one of these four positions largely on empirical grounds. But the remaining three positions all suggest that even if emotional qualia play an important role in human cognition, emotional qualia are not essential to the performance of these cognitive abilities in principle, so, e.g., a machine that lacks emotional qualia might still be able to perform them. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Rowley J.G.,University of Wyoming | Rowley J.G.,Carroll College | Parkinson B.A.,University of Wyoming
Langmuir | Year: 2013

It is often assumed that the photoresponse or incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectrum of a sensitized semiconductor electrode is directly correlated with the amount of sensitizing species present on the semiconductor surface. In reality, the various forms of adsorbed species, such as dye aggregates or dye molecules bound to different adsorption sites, such as terrace edges, can have significantly different electron injection yields and carrier recombination rates. To provide information about the amounts of the various adsorbed dye species and their effectiveness as sensitizers, we report the simultaneous acquisition of IPCE and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) UV-vis spectra for a thiacyanine dye bound to a single-crystal oxide semiconductor electrode surface. ZnO single crystals were fashioned into internal-reflection elements to act both as a waveguide for the internally reflected probe beam for UV-vis spectra and as the substrate for dye sensitization using dyes with distinct spectral signatures for monomers and aggregates. Strong agreement was observed between the quantum efficiency and ATR UV-vis spectra, suggesting that, under the conditions employed, both monomers and aggregates of the dye studied generate photocurrent with the same efficiency. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source


Walton J.,Carroll College
Nephrology nursing journal : journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association | Year: 2011

Racial bias, stigma, stereotyping and health disparities are pervasive in health care across America. The purposes of this research study were to assess if there was a significant difference in cultural knowledge and awareness in college health science students before and after receiving education about Native Americans receiving hemodialysis. Pre- and post-surveys were administered to assess cultural attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge. The intervention included a one-hour presentation on the findings of a research study. The qualitative component included students' writing a critical reflection paper related to a case study of a young Native American with chronic kidney disease. There was a statistically significant difference in the pre- and post-test, suggesting that students can learn cultural awareness from Native Americans receiving dialysis and can apply culturally aware interventions following an education session based on clinical research. The themes of this study were a) approaching the patient with an open mind; b) developing trust, c) assessing beliefs, culture, and knowledge; d) educating and re-educating with patient and family; e) convincing the patient to have dialysis; and f) creating a sacred space. Nephrology nurses can partner with local colleges to present findings from research and help facilitate culturally relevant care. Source

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