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Kantono K.,Auckland University of Technology | Hamid N.,Auckland University of Technology | Shepherd D.,Auckland University of Technology | Lin Y.H.T.,Auckland University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

Unrelated auditory cues may alter gustatory and hedonic perceptions to food, but it is unclear whether similar effects will be observed with congruent eating-environment sounds. This is the first experimental work to demonstrate how different eating-environment sounds, varying in quality, may influence pleasantness of food samples. In this study, trained participants (n = 90) were separated into two balanced groups. The first group provided temporal pleasantness measurements during consumption of three different chocolate gelati while listening to various eating-environment sounds, and a silent control condition. This procedure was followed using a second group though with the provision of pictures related to the eating-environment sounds. Both psychoacoustical and psychological measures of sound quality were associated with gelati pleasantness. Combined audiovisual cues further amplified pleasantness ratings compared to auditory cues only. The results are further explained in terms of the effects of mood and arousal on sensory perception. Findings from this study may assist in elucidating the real life implications of the effect of sounds on food pleasantness. © 2016.


Kantono K.,Auckland University of Technology | Hamid N.,Auckland University of Technology | Shepherd D.,Auckland University of Technology | Yoo M.J.Y.,Auckland University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Psychology of Music | Year: 2016

This study investigated whether samples of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant music can impact food perception. To this end, the pleasantness of three different types of chocolate gelati (milk chocolate, dark chocolate and bittersweet chocolate) was determined using 50 participants exposed to silence (the reference condition) and three music samples differing in self-rated preference. To measure hedonic responses to the gelati samples, the Time Intensity method was utilized to derive the maximum intensity of pleasantness and the area under the Time Intensity pleasantness curve. The presence of non-preferred music significantly decreased the pleasantness ratings of all three types of chocolate gelati tested, while preferred music increased perceived pleasantness ratings of dark and bittersweet chocolate gelati, but not milk chocolate gelato. Time Intensity parameters for pleasantness ratings did not differ significantly across the three different types of chocolate gelati in the silent condition, suggesting that listening to the music influenced gelati pleasantness ratings. This study demonstrated that the pleasantness of gelati changed with music valence. The findings echo previous studies emphasizing the importance of crossmodal effects between music and food perception. © The Author(s) 2015.


Thomas Carr B.,Charles Sturt University | Lesniauskas R.O.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

The data analysis workshop at the 2014 Sensometrics meeting involved the extension of temporal dominance of sensation (TDS) to temporal liking, using data collected on six fresh cheeses. One objective of the workshop was to explore data analysis techniques that would reveal which TDS attributes drove temporal liking. A simple two-way analysis of variance with interaction was performed to address the objective. TDS data were collected from a group of consumers and from a trained TDS panel. The consumers also rated their liking of the six cheeses continuously over time during consumption. The consumer TDS and temporal liking data were merged and average liking while dominant (LWD) ratings were calculated for each consumer, product and dominant attribute. The trained panel's average TDS curves were merged with the consumers' average temporal liking ratings and average LWD values were calculated for each product and attribute. For both data sets, the LWD values were arranged into a two-way table of products-by-attributes. Not all attributes were dominant for all products, so the two-way tables have many missing values. Three analyses were performed. The first was conducted on the product-by-attribute data with no changes or adjustments. The second was conducted on the product-by-attribute data after the missing values had been imputed. The third was conducted on the product-by-attribute data that had been weighted based on the amount of time a particular attribute was dominant during consumption. The results of the analyses revealed that garlic and fresh herbs were positive drivers of temporal liking, cooked herbs and cream were negative drivers. The weighted analyses appear to be slightly more discriminating than the other two approaches. Also, the consumer TDS data were more discriminating than the trained panel TDS data. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


van der Horst K.,Nestlé | Deming D.M.,Nestlé | Lesniauskas R.,Carr Consulting | Carr B.T.,Carr Consulting | And 2 more authors.
Appetite | Year: 2016

Food rejection behaviors such as picky eating are of concern for many parents and attempts to increase healthy food intake can cause distress at mealtimes. An important limitation in most of the picky eating studies is that they cover few characteristics of picky eating behaviors and use limited measures of food intake. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between picky eating, child eating characteristics, and food intake among toddlers 12-47.9 months old (n = 2371) using data from the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographic and feeding characteristics and picky eater status. Differences in food group intake between picky and non-picky eaters were analyzed. Picky eaters were more likely to be neophobic, texture resistant, and to eat only favorite foods, In addition, the parents of picky eaters tend to offer new food a greater number of times than those of non-picky eaters before deciding that the child does not like it. Picky eaters showed significant lower intakes of eggs, burritos/tacos/enchiladas/nachos and sandwiches than non-picky eaters. Picky eaters consumed fewer vegetables from the "other vegetables" category and less raw vegetables than non-picky eaters. Neophobia, eating only favorite foods and difficulties with texture are all important characteristics of picky eaters which need to be integrated in studies measuring picky eating behaviors. Food intake of picky eaters differs only slightly from non-picky eaters. Because picky eating is a major parental concern, feeding strategies and advice related to the relevant characteristics of picky eating behavior need to be developed and assessed for their effectiveness. © 2016 The Authors.


PubMed | Carr Consulting, Charles Sturt University and Nestlé
Type: | Journal: Appetite | Year: 2016

Food rejection behaviors such as picky eating are of concern for many parents and attempts to increase healthy food intake can cause distress at mealtimes. An important limitation in most of the picky eating studies is that they cover few characteristics of picky eating behaviors and use limited measures of food intake. The objective of this study was to explore the associations between picky eating, child eating characteristics, and food intake among toddlers 12-47.9 months old (n=2371) using data from the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Logistic regression was used to examine associations between demographic and feeding characteristics and picky eater status. Differences in food group intake between picky and non-picky eaters were analyzed. Picky eaters were more likely to be neophobic, texture resistant, and to eat only favorite foods, In addition, the parents of picky eaters tend to offer new food a greater number of times than those of non-picky eaters before deciding that the child does not like it. Picky eaters showed significant lower intakes of eggs, burritos/tacos/enchiladas/nachos and sandwiches than non-picky eaters. Picky eaters consumed fewer vegetables from the other vegetables category and less raw vegetables than non-picky eaters. Neophobia, eating only favorite foods and difficulties with texture are all important characteristics of picky eaters which need to be integrated in studies measuring picky eating behaviors. Food intake of picky eaters differs only slightly from non-picky eaters. Because picky eating is a major parental concern, feeding strategies and advice related to the relevant characteristics of picky eating behavior need to be developed and assessed for their effectiveness.


King S.C.,McCormick and Company Inc. | Snow J.,Maryland University of Integrative Health | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | Sainsbury J.,Mccormick South Africa Pty Ltd | And 6 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

This paper presents the development of a questionnaire to measure consumer wellness associated with food. The paper describes the selection of the questionnaire items, the validation of the questionnaire content, and the stability of the results. This new questionnaire, consisting of 5 dimensions (emotional, intellectual, physical, social and spiritual), and a total of 45 items, measures expected or perceived wellness response to food names or consumed food. The questionnaire was tested using internet surveys (names of aromatics, peppermint and lavender), and central location tests (different recipes of meatloaf and vegetables). The construct of this questionnaire and data analyses provide not only an overall (calculated) wellness score, but also insights into the dimensions that drive the wellness response and specific foods or ingredient characteristics that drive the wellness response. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Carr Consulting, University College London and GOJO Industries Inc.
Type: | Journal: International journal of cosmetic science | Year: 2016

The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effect of ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol on stratum corneum (SC) enzymes and keratinocytes invitro together with their effects on skin condition and function.Activities of kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) as well as keratinocyte metabolic activity, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) were measured invitro in the presence and absence of the different alcohols. We also measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, visual dryness and visual redness on the volar forearms of 25 Caucasian women following application of the alcohols 20 and 100 times per day over a period of 14days in a clinical study.Reduced activities of KLK5 and PLA2 were observed in the presence of the alcohols. The greatest denaturing effect was always observed for n-propanol (P<0.001), and in the case of PLA2, the effect of isopropanol was greater than ethanol (P<0.001). Equally, ethanol had the mildest effects on keratinocyte metabolic activity and cytokine secretion (P<0.001) and n-propanol always produced the most severe changes in normal and differentiated keratinocytes. These invitro findings supported the clinical results where the major effects were on the induction of skin irritation (increased dropout rates) and ranked the intolerance of the different alcohols as follows: n-propanol>isopropanol>ethanol. At the high application frequencies, the effect of the different alcohols on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance was similar, but at the low application frequencies, n-propanol had a significant effect on TEWL and capacitance values (P<0.05). Equally, n-propanol and isopropanol produced significantly more skin redness at the low application frequencies.Clearly, isopropanol and n-propanol caused significant SC and keratinocyte perturbation invitro together with damage to skin condition and function invivo whereas ethanol did not. As a result, we show that ethanol-based sanitizers are better tolerated by skin, particularly in high-use settings, than other alcohols and should be the active ingredient of choice.


Meyners M.,Procter and Gamble | Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc. | Carr B.T.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questionnaires have seen a widespread use recently. In this paper, we briefly review some of the existing approaches to analyze data obtained from such a study. Proposed extensions to these methods include a generalization of Cochran's Q to test for product differences across all attributes, and a more informative penalty analysis. Multidimensional alignment (MDA) is suggested as a useful tool to investigate the association between products and the attributes. Comparisons of real products with an ideal are useful in identifying specific improvements for individual products. Penalty and penalty-lift analyses are used to identify (positive and negative) drivers of liking. The methods are illustrated by means of CATA study on whole grain breads. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | Carr B.T.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

The EsSense Profile™ methodology, presented in 2008 and published in 2010, incorporates both overall acceptability and emotion measures in the consumer test questionnaire. This method provides a detailed list of emotion attributes that consumers associate with the test products. This list can be expanded or edited to account for specific emotions that may be appropriate in specific product categories and in specific applications. Data collection can use either choose all that apply (CATA) or data scaling (e.g., using a five-point scale). Both approaches provide useful information, however, the scaling approach provides more detail specifically when comparing products with small differences. This method has been used to guide product development efforts similar to that provided by traditional consumer tests, to map a product category, and most importantly, to relate the product to the brand essence, which typically conveys an emotional aspect of the product. The relationship between acceptability and emotions has been evaluated for different products and product categories. A few emotion terms relate to acceptability consistently; however, many of the emotions measured do not relate to acceptability. For example, males associated acceptability with two emotions, satisfied and (-) disgusted, therefore the remaining 37 emotions resulted in new information. Females, on the other hand, associated acceptability with 25 positive emotions, including joyful, good, happy, pleasant and (-) disgusted, leaving 14 emotions to express other attitudes about the products. This demonstrates that emotions provide additional information not explained by overall acceptability, resulting in a method that provides additional new information about the products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | Thomas Carr B.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

The study of emotions associated with foods continues to gain momentum within the Sensory Science field. A number of questionnaire methods have been published, but there is a lack of detailed advice on how to use and/or implement these methods. This paper addresses a number of methodological decisions for the EsSense Profile® (King & Meiselman, 2010), a method developed to measure emotions associated with foods, and more generally, on how to measure emotions in a product development context. The results of 28 tests (Central Location Tests (CLT) and Internet Surveys) demonstrate (1) the impact of questionnaire format on hedonic and emotion responses by evaluating the results of eight internet surveys comparing the following: (1a) types of questionnaire (check all that apply versus rating scale), (1b) order of emotions (alphabetical versus random), and (1c) position of emotions with respect to overall acceptability question (before or after acceptability); (2) the difference in response when testing a product name, the aroma of the product or the flavor of the product; (3) the impact of number of samples on emotion responses in a central location test; and (4) the impact of time of day for conducting emotion tests. This paper provides a foundation and best practices for measuring emotions with consumers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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