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Kantono K.,Auckland University of Technology | Hamid N.,Auckland University of Technology | Shepherd D.,Auckland University of Technology | Lin Y.H.T.,Auckland University of Technology | And 5 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2016

Unrelated auditory cues may alter gustatory and hedonic perceptions to food, but it is unclear whether similar effects will be observed with congruent eating-environment sounds. This is the first experimental work to demonstrate how different eating-environment sounds, varying in quality, may influence pleasantness of food samples. In this study, trained participants (n = 90) were separated into two balanced groups. The first group provided temporal pleasantness measurements during consumption of three different chocolate gelati while listening to various eating-environment sounds, and a silent control condition. This procedure was followed using a second group though with the provision of pictures related to the eating-environment sounds. Both psychoacoustical and psychological measures of sound quality were associated with gelati pleasantness. Combined audiovisual cues further amplified pleasantness ratings compared to auditory cues only. The results are further explained in terms of the effects of mood and arousal on sensory perception. Findings from this study may assist in elucidating the real life implications of the effect of sounds on food pleasantness. © 2016.

King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | Carr B.T.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2010

The EsSense Profile™ methodology, presented in 2008 and published in 2010, incorporates both overall acceptability and emotion measures in the consumer test questionnaire. This method provides a detailed list of emotion attributes that consumers associate with the test products. This list can be expanded or edited to account for specific emotions that may be appropriate in specific product categories and in specific applications. Data collection can use either choose all that apply (CATA) or data scaling (e.g., using a five-point scale). Both approaches provide useful information, however, the scaling approach provides more detail specifically when comparing products with small differences. This method has been used to guide product development efforts similar to that provided by traditional consumer tests, to map a product category, and most importantly, to relate the product to the brand essence, which typically conveys an emotional aspect of the product. The relationship between acceptability and emotions has been evaluated for different products and product categories. A few emotion terms relate to acceptability consistently; however, many of the emotions measured do not relate to acceptability. For example, males associated acceptability with two emotions, satisfied and (-) disgusted, therefore the remaining 37 emotions resulted in new information. Females, on the other hand, associated acceptability with 25 positive emotions, including joyful, good, happy, pleasant and (-) disgusted, leaving 14 emotions to express other attitudes about the products. This demonstrates that emotions provide additional information not explained by overall acceptability, resulting in a method that provides additional new information about the products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Thomas Carr B.,Charles Sturt University | Lesniauskas R.O.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

The data analysis workshop at the 2014 Sensometrics meeting involved the extension of temporal dominance of sensation (TDS) to temporal liking, using data collected on six fresh cheeses. One objective of the workshop was to explore data analysis techniques that would reveal which TDS attributes drove temporal liking. A simple two-way analysis of variance with interaction was performed to address the objective. TDS data were collected from a group of consumers and from a trained TDS panel. The consumers also rated their liking of the six cheeses continuously over time during consumption. The consumer TDS and temporal liking data were merged and average liking while dominant (LWD) ratings were calculated for each consumer, product and dominant attribute. The trained panel's average TDS curves were merged with the consumers' average temporal liking ratings and average LWD values were calculated for each product and attribute. For both data sets, the LWD values were arranged into a two-way table of products-by-attributes. Not all attributes were dominant for all products, so the two-way tables have many missing values. Three analyses were performed. The first was conducted on the product-by-attribute data with no changes or adjustments. The second was conducted on the product-by-attribute data after the missing values had been imputed. The third was conducted on the product-by-attribute data that had been weighted based on the amount of time a particular attribute was dominant during consumption. The results of the analyses revealed that garlic and fresh herbs were positive drivers of temporal liking, cooked herbs and cream were negative drivers. The weighted analyses appear to be slightly more discriminating than the other two approaches. Also, the consumer TDS data were more discriminating than the trained panel TDS data. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

King S.C.,McCormick and Company | Snow J.,Maryland University of Integrative Health | Meiselman H.L.,Herb Meiselman Training and Consulting Services | Sainsbury J.,Mccormick South Africa Pty Ltd | And 6 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2015

This paper presents the development of a questionnaire to measure consumer wellness associated with food. The paper describes the selection of the questionnaire items, the validation of the questionnaire content, and the stability of the results. This new questionnaire, consisting of 5 dimensions (emotional, intellectual, physical, social and spiritual), and a total of 45 items, measures expected or perceived wellness response to food names or consumed food. The questionnaire was tested using internet surveys (names of aromatics, peppermint and lavender), and central location tests (different recipes of meatloaf and vegetables). The construct of this questionnaire and data analyses provide not only an overall (calculated) wellness score, but also insights into the dimensions that drive the wellness response and specific foods or ingredient characteristics that drive the wellness response. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Meyners M.,Procter and Gamble | Castura J.C.,Compusense Inc | Carr B.T.,Carr Consulting
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

Check-all-that-apply (CATA) questionnaires have seen a widespread use recently. In this paper, we briefly review some of the existing approaches to analyze data obtained from such a study. Proposed extensions to these methods include a generalization of Cochran's Q to test for product differences across all attributes, and a more informative penalty analysis. Multidimensional alignment (MDA) is suggested as a useful tool to investigate the association between products and the attributes. Comparisons of real products with an ideal are useful in identifying specific improvements for individual products. Penalty and penalty-lift analyses are used to identify (positive and negative) drivers of liking. The methods are illustrated by means of CATA study on whole grain breads. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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