Anzola dell'Emilia, Italy
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Lazzarini R.,Carpigiani Group | Stefanelli C.,University of Ferrara | Tortonesi M.,University of Ferrara
Proceedings of the 2013 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management, IM 2013 | Year: 2013

E-maintenance refers to the adoption of ICT to enable the remote monitoring and control of industrial equipment and processes. Traditionally, e-maintenance solutions rely on expensive and proprietary Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) technologies, which present cost and interoperability issues that limit their adoption to large plants and industrial processes. However, recent developments in ICT have broadened the application field of e-maintenance, enabling its adoption for the management of large scale (relatively) small and low-cost machines. This opens up new terrific business opportunities, especially in the increasingly important after-sales services market. This paper aims to draw the attention of the network and service management community on the e-maintenance issue. We hope to provide some helpful information to attract the interest of researchers and practitioners and to stimulate further discussions and research efforts on this topic. © 2013 IFIP.


Lazzarini R.,Carpigiani Group | Virgilli G.,Carpigiani Group | Stefanelli C.,University of Ferrara | Tortonesi M.,University of Ferrara
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA | Year: 2011

In modern manufacturing, the integration of ICT in the maintenance process, led to the development of e-maintenance, that automates management operations. E-maintenance, that initially interested only large plant machinery, is now becoming affordable for mass-produced equipment, thanks to the recent advances in ICT. This paper presents Teorema, an innovative e-maintenance solution for Carpigiani ice cream machines, which provides several services: remote monitoring of machines, automatic notification of malfunctions, diagnostics and prognostics functions, remote assistance interventions, and automated reporting of production data. Teorema is already in production and it is significantly improving the after-sale service to Carpigiani customers. © 2011 IEEE.


Grossi M.,University of Bologna | Lazzarini R.,Carpigiani Group | Lanzoni M.,University of Bologna | Ricco B.,University of Bologna
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2011

The freezing process is very important in ice cream production affecting quality, taste and yield of the finished product. Batch freezer machines use different control techniques to tightly control the freezing process, based on monitoring of the temperature and/or the viscosity (i.e. consistency) of the product. Temperature control, however, features low sensitivity and need calibration for different product compositions, while product viscosity is essentially inferred from dasher motor load, sensitive to power line fluctuations, volume of product and dasher motor characteristics. In this context, this paper presents a novel technique based on measurements of the product electrical characteristics, tightly linked to temperature and viscosity. The experimental results presented in this work clearly indicate that the proposed technique provides a suitable, nondestructive tool to monitor ice cream quality product that overcomes the drawbacks of the standard methods, thus representing an advance in the state of the art for freezing control. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Grossi M.,University of Bologna | Lanzoni M.,University of Bologna | Pompei A.,University of Bologna | Lazzarini R.,Carpigiani Group | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces, IWASI 2011 | Year: 2011

Bacterial detection is of primary importance in many fields, such as food and environmental monitoring. Measurements of bacterial concentration are traditionally carried out by means of the Standard Plate Count technique, a reliable method for microbial screening that, however, features long response time and is carried out by qualified personnel in microbiology laboratories. The impedance technique for bacterial concentration detection represents a method very competitive with Standard Plate Count in terms of response time (3-12 hours vs. 24-72 hours) as well as for the possibility to be realized in automatic form. This paper presents an embedded portable biosensor system for the measurement of bacterial concentration in cow's raw milk. The possibility to perform measurements on the field, hence without the need to ship samples to distant laboratories, and to transmit the data on wireless communication systems or on the Internet represents a substantial advantage in terms of time and cost, thus making the presented system an important tool for in-situ bacterial screening. © 2011 IEEE.


Grossi M.,University of Bologna | Lazzarini R.,University of Bologna | Lanzoni M.,Carpigiani Group | Pompei A.,University of Bologna | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2013

Bacterial screening is very important in water environmental monitoring, because the presence of dangerous pathogens can seriously endanger human health. Microbial concentration detection is performed by standard plate count technique, which is reliable but is characterized by long response time and is not suitable to be implemented in automatic form. Based on impedance measurements, this paper presents a portable sensor implemented as an electronic embedded system featuring disposable measurement cells, which is suitable of measuring bacterial concentration in water samples. The system provides a much faster response than standard technique (3-12 h depending on the contamination level versus 24-72 h of the standard technique) and can be used for an in situ microbial test rather than taking samples to a laboratory for analysis. Water samples from different sources (such as rivers, wastewaters, watercourses) are tested using the presented system. Enriched medium is added to the sample to favor bacterial growth. Three different media are tested (Lauria Bertani, Mc Conkey Broth, and Lactose Broth) and data are compared with microbial growth rate and selectivity toward bacterial group (e.g., coliforms). The obtained experimental data show good correlation with the plate count technique. © 2001-2012 IEEE.


Grossi M.,University of Bologna | Lanzoni M.,University of Bologna | Lazzarini R.,Carpigiani Group | Ricco B.,University of Bologna
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2012

Electrical characterization of products is gaining increasing interest in the food industry for quality monitoring and control. In particular, this is the case in the ice-cream industry, where machines dedicated to store ice-cream mixes are programmed "ad hoc" for different groups of products. To this purpose, the present work shows that essential product classification (discrimination between milk based and fruit based ice-cream mixes) can be done by means of a technique based on the measurements of non-linear response in the electrical behavior of the electrode-electrolyte interface. The addition of pH measurements allows to further reach the three parts classification occasionally required for advanced applications. The proposed idea is validated by means of measurements on 21 ice-cream mixes, different for producers and composition. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Saraceno L.,ENEA | Boccardi G.,ENEA | Celata G.P.,ENEA | Lazzarini R.,Carpigiani Group | Trinchieri R.,ENEA
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2011

Heat transfer in presence of a high viscosity fluid may be substantially enhanced using heat exchangers supported by a mechanical agitation system that can also "scrape" the exchange surface (Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger, SSHE). In this case, heat transfer efficiency depends strongly on exchanger and agitator geometries, agitation methods as well as fluid characteristics and heat transfer conditions. Correlations used to represent the phenomenon are closely related to the above parameters and hardly employable out of that peculiar context. In this work some results of an experimental research on SSHE performances, used as the evaporator of a refrigeration cycle in a commercial soft ice-cream machine, are presented. The liquid ice-cream mixture goes into this component where it is mixed with a variable amount of air and cooled to obtain soft ice-cream. The mixture has a non-Newtonian fluid behaviour that involves a lot of problems related to its physical representation: some assumptions on ice-cream rheological properties have been accepted. Varying ice-cream mass flow, input/output temperatures of the liquid mixture and the agitator speed, ice-cream production tests were carried out. Two heat transfer coefficient correlations are proposed to describe experimental data: the first one arises from the classical dimensional analysis while the second one is related to the agitator engine power consumption. Finally, the experimental results supply a reliable database to find possible improvements in ice-cream machine efficiency. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Grossi M.,University of Bologna | Lanzoni M.,University of Bologna | Pompei A.,University of Bologna | Lazzarini R.,Carpigiani Group | And 2 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2010

Microbial screening is a primary concern for many products. Traditional techniques based on standard plate count (SPC) are accurate, but time consuming. Furthermore, they require a laboratory environment and qualified personnel. The impedance technique (IT) looking for changes in the electrical characteristics of the sample under test (SUT) induced by bacterial metabolism represents an interesting alternative to SPC since it is faster (3-12h vs. 24-72h for SPC) and can be easily implemented in automatic form. With this approach, the essential parameter is the time for bacteria concentration to reach a critical threshold value (about 107cfumL-1) capable of inducing significant variations in the SUT impedance, measured by applying a 100mV peak-to-peak 200Hz sinusoidal test signal at time intervals of 5min. The results of this work show good correlation between data obtained with the SPC approach and with impedance measurements lasting only 3h, in the case of highly contaminated samples (106cfumL-1). Furthermore, this work introduces a portable system for impedance measurements composed of an incubation chamber containing the SUT, a thermoregulation board to control the target temperature and an impedance measurement board. The mix of cheap electronics and fast detection time provides a useful tool for microbial screening in industrial and commercial environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Grossi M.,University of Bologna | Lanzoni M.,University of Bologna | Lazzarini R.,Carpigiani Group | Ricco B.,University of Bologna
Sensors and Transducers | Year: 2012

Sine wave signals are widely used in electronic applications such as digital oscilloscopes calibration, speech analysis and electrochemical sensors. In particular, impedance based microbial biosensors detect bacterial concentration by stimulating the sample with a sinusoidal test signal and measuring its electrical characteristics. Thus, for reliable microbial biosensing, fast and accurate sine wave analysis is mandatory. Many algorithms for the estimation of sinusoidal parameters exist that provide accurate estimate but are based on time consuming iterative procedures and/or need good starting values for the sine parameters. In this paper a linear non iterative algorithm based on the least squares method is presented that allows sinusoidal voltages analysis in a fast and efficient manner. The algorithm has been tested either with simulation analysis either with real impedances and the results proved to be accurate enough for reliable bacterial concentration measurement. © 2012 IFSA.

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