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Tzu J.H.,University of Miami | John V.J.,University of Miami | Flynn H.W.,University of Miami | Smiddy W.E.,University of Miami | And 10 more authors.
Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging Retina | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical course and outcomes of patients with vitreomacular traction (VMT) managed initially by observation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This noncomparative case series included patients with a diagnosis of VMT based on clinical symptoms and findings on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) between 2005 and 2014. VMT was documented using a standardized grading system based on the degree of distortion of the foveal contour. Data were collected at five retina clinics using standardized collection forms. Visual acuity, changes in SD-OCT findings, and timing of the release of VMT as seen on SD-OCT were recorded. RESULTS: The study included 230 eyes of 185 patients. Mean age was 72.5 years, and mean follow-up was 32 months. At baseline, VMT grading was grade 1 in 92 eyes (40%), grade 2 in 118 eyes (51.3%), and grade 3 in 20 eyes (8.7%). By last follow-up, spontaneous release of VMT occurred in 73 eyes (31.7%). Spontaneous release of VMT occurred at a mean of 18 months (median: 10.9 months) after initial visit. Mean logMAR best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.28 (20/55) (range: 20/20 to 20/400) at baseline and 0.25 (20/51) (range: 20/20 to 20/400) at last follow-up. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed in 10 eyes (4.1%) for macular hole (six eyes) and increased VMT (four eyes); BCVA was at least 20/40 in eight of the 10 eyes at last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Patients with VMT generally had a favorable clinical course when managed initially by observation. Spontaneous release of VMT occurred in approximately one-third of patients. At last follow-up, pars plana vitrectomy was performed in fewer than 5% of patients.

Gross J.G.,Carolina Retina Center | Glassman A.R.,Jaeb Center for Health Research | Jampol L.M.,Northwestern University | Inusah S.,Jaeb Center for Health Research | And 14 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE: Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) is the standard treatment for reducing severe visual loss from proliferative diabetic retinopathy. However, PRP can damage the retina, resulting in peripheral vision loss or worsening diabetic macular edema (DME). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the noninferiority of intravitreous ranibizumab compared with PRP for visual acuity outcomes in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized clinical trial conducted at 55 US sites among 305 adults with proliferative diabetic retinopathy enrolled between February and December 2012 (mean age, 52 years; 44% female; 52% white). Both eyes were enrolled for 89 participants (1 eye to each study group), with a total of 394 study eyes. The final 2-year visit was completed in January 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Individual eyes were randomly assigned to receive PRP treatment, completed in 1 to 3 visits (n = 203 eyes), or ranibizumab, 0.5mg, by intravitreous injection at baseline and as frequently as every 4 weeks based on a structured re-treatment protocol (n = 191 eyes). Eyes in both treatment groups could receive ranibizumab for DME. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was mean visual acuity change at 2 years (5-letter noninferiority margin; intention-to-treat analysis). Secondary outcomes included visual acuity area under the curve, peripheral visual field loss, vitrectomy, DME development, and retinal neovascularization. RESULTS: Mean visual acuity letter improvement at 2 years was +2.8 in the ranibizumab group vs +0.2 in the PRP group (difference, +2.2; 95% CI, -0.5 to +5.0; P < .001 for noninferiority). The mean treatment group difference in visual acuity area under the curve over 2 years was +4.2 (95% CI, +3.0 to +5.4; P < .001). Mean peripheral visual field sensitivity loss was worse (-23 dB vs -422 dB; difference, 372 dB; 95% CI, 213-531 dB; P < .001), vitrectomy was more frequent (15%vs 4%; difference, 9%; 95% CI, 4%-15%; P < .001), and DME development was more frequent (28% vs 9%; difference, 19%; 95% CI, 10%-28%; P < .001) in the PRP group vs the ranibizumab group, respectively. Eyes without active or regressed neovascularization at 2 years were not significantly different (35%in the ranibizumab group vs 30% in the PRP group; difference, 3%; 95% CI, -7%to 12%; P = .58). One eye in the ranibizumab group developed endophthalmitis. No significant differences between groups in rates of major cardiovascular events were identified. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, treatment with ranibizumab resulted in visual acuity that was noninferior to (not worse than) PRP treatment at 2 years. Although longer-term follow-up is needed, ranibizumab may be a reasonable treatment alternative, at least through 2 years, for patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. © 2015 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.

Chan C.K.,Southern California Desert Retina Consultants | Chan C.K.,Loma Linda University | Abraham P.,Black Hills Regional Eye Institute | Meyer C.H.,Universitats Augenklinik | And 8 more authors.
Retina | Year: 2010

Purpose: The purpose was to study preinjection optical coherence tomography-related factors in age-related macular degeneration eyes with retinal pigment epithelial detachment (PED) that may predispose retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) tears associated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections. Methods: This multicenter retrospective case series involving 9 retina specialists and 7 centers investigated Stratus optical coherence tomography (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) parameters in eyes with vascularized PED (vPED) from February 2006 to February 2007. Of the 1,280 eyes in 1,255 patients receiving 2,890 intravitreal injections, there were 125 eyes with vPED. For every vPED eye that developed an RPE tear (Group 1), 3 or more vPED eyes without RPE tears (Group 2) were randomly selected in each study center during the same time period for comparison. The primary outcome measure was PED height (μm), and the secondary measures included volume index (vPED height × surface area), total macular volume, subretinal fluid, cystoid macular edema, center-point thickness, central 1 mm, and pre- and postinjection best-corrected Snellen visual acuities. Results: Twenty-one vPED eyes in 21 patients among 125 vPED eyes (16.8% of all vPED eyes) developed RPE tears. The 21 Group 1 eyes were compared with the 78 randomly selected Group 2 eyes. The vPED height was significantly higher for Group 1 eyes in comparison to Group 2 eyes (mean: 648.9 ± 245.0 vs. 338.1 ± 201.6 μm, P < 0.001). The same was true for the following: volume index (P = 0.001), subretinal fluid (P = 0.002), and total macular volume (P = 0.04). The mean preinjection and post-RPE tear best-corrected visual acuity were 0.92 logMAR (20/166) and 0.84 logMAR (20/137), respectively (P = 0.25). Multivariate analysis showed PED height to be the only significant risk factor associated with RPE tears in Group 1 eyes [odds ratio = 0.995 (95% confidence interval: 0.992-0.997), P < 0.001]. Conclusion: Elevated preinjection vPED height is the single most significant predictor for RPE tears after bevacizumab injections for vPED eyes. A vPED height >400 μm is associated with a significant risk for such a complication. Copyright © by Ophthalmic Communications Society, Inc.

Stroman W.R.,Carolina Retina Center | Gross J.G.,Carolina Retina Center
Expert Review of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the development of the neurovascular disease known as diabetic retinopathy. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the most advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy and is diagnosed with the onset of neovascularization (NV). Understanding the pathophysiology of NV and monitoring the disease using advanced diagnostic instruments is essential in providing timely treatment. While the standard treatment for PDR is panretinal photocoagulation, new pharmaceutical approaches, such as anti-VEGF treatments, may promote rapid regression of NV. Recent enhancements in vitrectomy techniques have improved post-operative recovery and overall surgical outcomes for the late complications of PDR. This article is a comprehensive review of the latest treatments for the management of PDR. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Elman M.J.,Elman Retina Group | Sloan M.D.,Elman Retina Group | Starr J.,Elman Retina Group | Butcher T.M.,Elman Retina Group | And 129 more authors.
Eye (Basingstoke) | Year: 2012

Purpose: To determine the rate of progression of eyes with subclinical diabetic macular edema (DME) to clinically apparent DME or DME necessitating treatment during a 2-year period. Methods: In all, 43 eyes from 39 study participants with subclinical DME, defined as absence of foveal center edema as determined with slit lamp biomicroscopy but a center point thickness (CPT) between 225 and 299 μm on time domain (Stratus, Carl Zeiss Meditec) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan, were enrolled from 891 eyes of 582 subjects screened. Eyes were evaluated annually for up to 2 years for the primary outcome, which was an increase in OCT CPT of at least 50 μm from baseline and a CPT of at least 300 μm, or treatment for DME (performed at the discretion of the investigator). Results: The cumulative probability of meeting an increase in OCT CPT of at least 50 μm from baseline and a CPT of at least 300 μm, or treatment for DME was 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%, 38%) by 1 year and 38% (95% CI: 23%, 50%) by 2 years. Conclusions: Although subclinical DME may be uncommon, this study suggests that between approximately one-quarter and one-half of eyes with subclinical DME will progress to more definite thickening or be judged to need treatment for DME within 2 years after its identification. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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