Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy is a state-run health science University in Bucharest, Romania. It is the largest institution of its kind in Romania with over 2.865 employees, 1.654 teachers and over 4.800 students. The University is using the facilities of over 20 clinical hospitals all over Bucharest.It was initially established in 1857 under the name National School of Medicine and Pharmacy by the French expatriate physician, Carol Davila. In 1869 it was incorporated as a department in the newly created University of Bucharest. The first doctoral degrees were granted in 1873, and the doctoral degree became the de facto graduation in 1888.The School of Pharmacy was founded in 1889 and it was renamed, as the Faculty of Pharmacy in 1923. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Carol Davila University is the place where insulin was isolated for the first time by Nicolae Paulescu in 1921. Wikipedia.
Mihai C.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy |
Tervaert J.W.C.,Maastricht University
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010
Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) are a heterogeneous class of antibodies whose role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases with vascular involvement has been extensively studied. Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is one of the systemic autoimmune diseases in which endothelial dysfunction is well defined and important in the development of the disease. AECA are present in the serum samples of many patients with SSc. Depending on the detection method and on patient selection, 22-86% of patients test positive for AECA. Among the demonstrated clinical associations, lung and peripheral vascular involvement are the most common. In this paper, the methods of detection, various molecular specificities and the possible pathogenic mechanisms of AECA in SSc are reviewed.
Tanasescu R.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy |
Constantinescu C.S.,University of Nottingham
Immunobiology | Year: 2010
Cannabinoids can influence the immune network. Data on the impact of exogenous cannabinoid ligands on immune function serve not only to understand how the endocannabinoid system modulates immune phenomena associated with infection or inflammation, but also to identify therapeutic targets for immune diseases. Cannabinoids can modulate immune reactions in the periphery but also in the brain, influence T cell subset balance and cytokine expression and play a role in the balance between neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Immune cells can synthesize endocannabinoids and also be influenced by cannabinoid analogues. Cannabinoid receptors show different expression on immune cells depending on activation status and stimuli. The complexity of relation between cannabinoid ligands of various classes and cannabinoid receptors brought the need to refine the simple conceptual frame of agonist-antagonists and offered potential implications for understanding interactions in pathological conditions. The immune influence of cannabinoid ligands is not fully elucidated. However, aspects of their immunomodulatory effects provide the basis for a context-dependent targeted therapeutic approach, thus leading to the possibility for the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of inflammatory disease. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.
Uivarosi V.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Molecules | Year: 2013
Quinolones are synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotics with good oral absorption and excellent bioavailability. Due to the chemical functions found on their nucleus (a carboxylic acid function at the 3-position, and in most cases a basic piperazinyl ring (or another N-heterocycle) at the 7-position, and a carbonyl oxygen atom at the 4-position) quinolones bind metal ions forming complexes in which they can act as bidentate, as unidentate and as bridging ligand, respectively. In the polymeric complexes in solid state, multiple modes of coordination are simultaneously possible. In strongly acidic conditions, quinolone molecules possessing a basic side nucleus are protonated and appear as cations in the ionic complexes. Interaction with metal ions has some important consequences for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of quinolones, and is also involved in the mechanism of action of these bactericidal agents. Many metal complexes with equal or enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to the parent quinolones were obtained. New strategies in the design of metal complexes of quinolones have led to compounds with anticancer activity. Analytical applications of complexation with metal ions were oriented toward two main directions: determination of quinolones based on complexation with metal ions or, reversely, determination of metal ions based on complexation with quinolones. © 2013 by the authors.
Cojocaru I.M.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Romanian journal of internal medicine = Revue roumaine de médecine interne | Year: 2013
Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke. Antioxidants are consumed in the reaction with free radicals generated during the oxidative stress. The aim of the study was the to evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma glutathione, plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), uric acid, bilirubin, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), red blood cells superoxide dismutase (RBS SOD) (spectrophotometric assay), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (enhanced chemiluminescence), ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, transferrin (nephelometric assay) were performed in 57 patients (mean age 73.4 +/- 6.5 years) with acute ischemic stroke within 24 hours and at 7 days after stroke onset as compared to 51 age-and sex-matched controls. Significantly lower values in the first 24 hours were: plasma glutathione, CAT, plasma SOD, RBS SOD (p < 0.001), plasma GPX, TAC, transferrin (p < 0.05). Significantly higher values in the first 24 hours were: CRP (p < 0.001), MDA, uric acid (p < 0.05). Significantly lower values at 7 days were: TAC, albumin, transferrin (p < 0.001), plasma glutathione, plasma SOD, CAT (p < 0.05). Significantly higher values at 7 days were: MDA, plasma GPX, RBC SOD, CRP, uric acid, bilirubin (p < 0.001), ceruloplasmin (p < 0.05). These results indicate that oxidative stress is increased and that the majority of antioxidants are reduced; this suggests the possibility of therapeutic intervention with antioxidant agents.
Popa C.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Journal of medicine and life | Year: 2010
The aim of this article is to analyze the vascular dysfunctions occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI). Vascular dysfunctions are common complications of SCI. Cardiovascular disturbances are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in both acute and chronic stages of SCI. Neuroanatomy and physiology of autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, is reviewed. SCI implies disruption of descendent pathways from central centers to spinal sympathetic neurons, originating in intermediolateral nuclei of T1-L2 cord segments. Loss of supraspinal control over sympathetic nervous system results in reduced overall sympathetic activity below the level of injury and unopposed parasympathetic outflow through intact vagal nerve. SCI associates significant vascular dysfunction. Spinal shock occurs during the acute phase following SCI and it is a transitory suspension of function and reflexes below the level of the injury. Neurogenic shock, part of spinal shock, consists of severe arterial hypotension and bradycardia. Autonomic dysreflexia appears during the chronic phase, after spinal shock resolution, and it is a life-threatening syndrome of massive imbalanced reflex sympathetic discharge occurring in patients with SCI above the splanchnic sympathetic outflow (T5-T6). Arterial hypotension with orthostatic hypotension occurs in both acute and chronic phases. The etiology is multifactorial. We described a few factors influencing the orthostatic hypotension occurrence in SCI: sympathetic nervous system dysfunction, low plasma catecholamine levels, rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity, peripheral alpha-adrenoceptor hyperresponsiveness, impaired function of baroreceptors, hyponatremia and low plasmatic volume, cardiovascular deconditioning, morphologic changes in sympathetic neurons, plasticity within spinal circuits, and motor deficit leading to loss of skeletal muscle pumping activity. Additional associated cardiovascular concerns in SCI, such as deep vein thrombosis and long-term risk for coronary heart disease and systemic atherosclerosis are also described. Proper prophylaxis, including non-pharmacologic and pharmacological strategies, diminishes the occurrence of the vascular dysfunction following SCI. Each vascular disturbance requires a specific treatment.
Cojocarui I.M.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Romanian journal of internal medicine = Revue roumaine de médecine interne | Year: 2012
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) have been thought to be involved in stroke pathogenesis. MMP-9 contributes to tissue destruction. Our aim was to analyze the MMP-9 levels in blood within 24 hours of acute ischemic stroke onset to observe the role of MMP-9 in the pathogenesis of atherothrombotic stroke. In this study we investigated prospectively MMP-9 levels in serum from 106 patients (42 men and 64 women, mean age 71.52 +/- 6.32 years) with acute ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery area in the first 24 hours from the onset (mean duration 7.8 +/- 4.5 hours) as compared to 112 controls (48 men and 64 women, mean age 70.36 +/- 6.8 years). Serum samples were collected under sterile conditions and stored in aliquots at -70 degrees C until assay. Serum MMP-9 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in blood samples obtained on admission. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney and Log-Likeliwood Ratio tests. All values reported are expressed as mean (x) +/- SD. Mean serum MMP-9 concentrations were higher in group with ischemic stroke 172 +/- 32.4 ng/mL, range 139.6-204.4 ng/mL vs. controls 57 +/- 9.6 ng/mL, range 47.4-66.6 ng/mL (95% CI, 3.17 to 14.18; p < 0.014). In conclusion, MMP-9 activity is associated with early acute ischemic stroke. The high levels of MMP-9 in acute ischemic stroke document the involvement of this enzyme in the regulation of inflammation in stroke.
Andrei F.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Folia morphologica | Year: 2013
To investigate the length and three-dimensional orientation and to detail the morphological variations of the styloid process. Forty-four patients undergoing temporal bone evaluation for different reasons were randomly selected and included in the present study. The length, angulation in the coronal and sagittal planes, as well as morphological variations of the styloid processes were assessed using conebeam computer tomography. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test possible associations between the length of styloid process and angulations, as well as between angulations. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences between the sample mean length and angulations in normal and elongated styloid process groups. The sagittal angle showed weak positive correlations with the styloid process length and the transverse angle (r = 0.24, p = 0.02, n = 88). A medium positive correlation was found between the sagittal and transverse angulations in the elongated styloid process group (r = 0.49, p = 0.0015, n = 38). There was a statistical significant difference between the mean sagittal angulation in elongated styloid and normal styloid process groups (p = 0.015). The styloid process morphology also varied in terms of shape, number, and degree of ossification. The morphometric and morphologic variations of the styloid process may be important factors to be taken into account not only from the viewpoint of styloid syndromes, but also in preoperatory planning and during surgery.
Radulescu L.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Journal of medicine and life | Year: 2013
The prevalence of maternal obesity has been increasing dramatically in the recent years (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2). Maternal obesity is associated with an unequivocal increase in maternal and fetal complications of pregnancy and more than that, these complications also extend beyond fetal life in childhood and adulthood. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal complications at birth associated with maternal obesity. The study included all women who gave birth between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012 at Bucharest University Emergency Hospital. Collected data included information about maternal health (the degree of obesity, associated complications of birth, anemia, and type of birth) and neonatal status (birth weight, gestational age, associated diseases and Apgar score). A higher incidence of IUGR, as well as an increased frequency of infants who needed intensive care after birth, a higher rate of cesarean surgery and a higher frequency of thromboembolic complications were observed in patients with associated obesity. Complications grow both in number and severity with increasing obesity. Diagnosis of the fetuses with IUGR is important for the monitoring and management of the pregnancy associated with obesity and it involves a close collaboration between obstetrician, family physician and neonatologist.
Matei C.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Journal of medicine and life | Year: 2013
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a medical procedure based on the activation of the molecules of various exogenous or endogenous chemical substances called photosensitizers by a light source emitting radiation of an adequate wavelength, usually situated in the visible spectrum; photosensitizers are chemical compounds bearing the capacity to selectively concentrate in the neoplastic cells. The energy captured by the molecules of these substances pervaded in the tumor cells is subsequently discharged in the surrounding tissue, triggering certain photodynamic reactions that result in the destruction of the tumor. The procedure is applicable in numerous medical fields. Skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent type of cancer of the human species, is a cutaneous tumor that responds very well to this innovative treatment method. By reviewing numerous recent studies in the field, this article aims to present the role and the indications of photodynamic therapy in the management of basal cell carcinoma, as well as the most important results achieved so far by this therapy in the field of dermato-oncology.
Baculescu N.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
Journal of medicine and life | Year: 2013
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common and complex endocrine disorders affecting up to 15 % of reproductive age women, is considered a predominantly hyperandrogenic syndrome according to the Androgen Excess Society. It is generally accepted that androgens determine the characteristic features of PCOS; in this context, a hyperactive androgen receptor (AR) at the levels of the GnRH pulse generator in the hypothalamus and at the granulosa cells in the ovary, skeletal muscle or adipocytes senses initially normal testosterone and dihydrotestosterone as biochemical hyperandrogenism and might be a crucial connection between the vicious circles of the PCOS pathogenesis. Polymorphism of the AR gene has been associated with different androgen pattern diseases. Several studies have demonstrated an association between AR with increased activity encoded by shorter CAG repeat polymorphism in the exon 1 of the AR gene and PCOS, although there are conflicting results in this field. The phenomenon is more complex because the AR activity is determined by the epigenetic effect of X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Moreover, we must evaluate the AR as a dynamic heterocomplex, with a large number of coactivators and corepressors that are essential to its function, thus mediating tissue-specific effects. In theory, any of these factors could modify the activity of AR, which likely explains the inconsistent results obtained when this activity was quantified by only the CAG polymorphism in PCOS.