Elkins-Tanton L.T.,Carnegie Institution of Washington
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences | Year: 2012
Theory and observations point to the occurrence of magma ponds or oceans in the early evolution of terrestrial planets and in many early-accreting planetesimals. The apparent ubiquity of melting during giant accretionary impacts suggests that silicate and metallic material may be processed through multiple magma oceans before reaching solidity in a planet. The processes of magma ocean formation and solidification, therefore, strongly influence the earliest compositional differentiation and volatile content of the terrestrial planets, and they form the starting point for cooling to clement, habitable conditions and for the onset of thermally driven mantle convection and plate tectonics. This review focuses on evidence for magma oceans on planetesimals and planets and on research concerning the processes of compositional differentiation in the silicate magma ocean, distribution and degassing of volatiles, and cooling. © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source
Carnegie Institution of Washington | Date: 2013-03-13
The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.
Carnegie Institution of Washington | Date: 2012-04-13
A nanosensor for detecting and quantifying lactate in different types of samples, such as tissues, intra-cellular and subcellular compartments, with high spatial and temporal resolution is disclosed. Methods comprising use of the nanosensor for quantifying the activity of lactate transporters, rates of cellular lactate production and cellular lactate consumption, and rate of mitochondrial pyruvate consumption are also disclosed. Methods for quantifying the transformation in energy metabolism that characterizes cancer cells with single-cell resolution and for detecting interference of candidate drugs with mitochondrial energetics are additionally disclosed.
Carnegie Institution of Washington and The General Hospital Corporation | Date: 2013-03-25
The present invention relates to genetically modified plant cells that have reduced expression or activity of at least one amino acid efflux transporter and/or at least one mineral efflux transporter compared to levels of expression or activity of the at least one amino acid efflux transporter or mineral efflux transporter in an unmodified plant cell. The present invention also relates to genetically modified plant cells that have increased expression or activity of at least one amino acid influx transporter and/or at least one mineral influx transporter compared to levels of expression or activity of the at least one amino acid influx transporter or mineral influx transporter in an unmodified plant cell.
Carnegie Institution of Washington | Date: 2013-09-05
The invention provides fusion proteins comprising at least two fluorescent proteins, with the fluorescent proteins emitting different wavelengths of light from one another, at least one plant hormone binding domain that changes three-dimensional conformation upon specifically binding to a plant hormone, and two linker peptides, with the first linker linking the first fluorescent protein to the N-terminus of the plant hormone binding domain and the second linker linking the second fluorescent protein to the C-terminus of the plant hormone binding domain. The invention also provides for methods of using the fusion proteins of the present invention and nucleic acids encoding the fusion proteins.